Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 30315–30324 | Cite as

Using the combined model of gamma test and neuro-fuzzy system for modeling and estimating lead bonds in reservoir sediments

  • Ali Akbar Mohammadi
  • Mahmood Yousefi
  • Jaber Soltani
  • Ahmad Gholamalizadeh Ahangar
  • Safoura JavanEmail author
Research Article


Heavy metals attract a great deal of attention nowadays due to their potential accumulation in living creatures and transference in the food chain. Sediments of water reservoirs are considered to be a source of accumulation of these metals that develop in response to human activities and soil erosion. This study collected 180 samples of the surface sediments of water reservoir 1 at Chahnimeh in Sistan. Efficiency of the ANFIS model was evaluated to estimate the five bonds following the measurement of parameters in the laboratory.

The following results were obtained for the parameters: organic carbon (OC) %, 0.31; cation exchange capacity (CEC), 37.07 Cmol kg; total Pb, 25.19 mg/kg; clay %, 45.87; and silt %, 39.02. These parameters were used as input for the training model. In the output layer, lead bonds were chosen as modeling targets in the following way: Pb f1 (4.61); Pb f2 (0.54); Pb f3 (16.28); Pb f4 (3.42); and Pb f5 (0.38) mg/kg. The best input compound in this model was chosen using the gamma test. From a total of 180, 88 data were considered for the model training section. Eventually, the neural-fuzzy model (subtractive clustering), developed for the prediction of lead bonds in the studied region, was able to account for over 99% of lead bonds in the sediments; considering statistical criteria of root mean squares error or RMSE (0.0337–0.0813) and determination coefficient or R2 (0.92–0.99), this model showed good performance with regard to prediction.


Sediments Gamma test M-test ANFIS Zabol, Iran 



The authors want to thank the authorities of Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences for their comprehensive support toward this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Akbar Mohammadi
    • 1
  • Mahmood Yousefi
    • 2
  • Jaber Soltani
    • 3
  • Ahmad Gholamalizadeh Ahangar
    • 4
  • Safoura Javan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health EngineeringNeyshabur University of Medical SciencesNeyshaburIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Department, Abouraihan Campus, University of TehranTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Soil ScienceFaculty of Soil and Water University of ZabolZabolIran

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