Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 30236–30254 | Cite as

Facile synthesis of carbon-coated layered double hydroxide and its comparative characterisation with Zn–Al LDH: application on crystal violet and malachite green dye adsorption—isotherm, kinetics and Box-Behnken design

  • Giphin George
  • Manickam Puratchiveeran SaravanakumarEmail author
Research Article


The adsorption of crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG) dyes using carbon-coated Zn–Al-layered double hydroxide (C–Zn–Al LDH) was investigated in this work. The characterisation of both Zn–Al LDH and C–Zn–Al LDH was performed using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, XPS, FTIR, BET and TGA. The results indicated that carbon particles were effectively coated on Zn–Al LDH surface. The average total pore volume and pore diameter of C–Zn–Al LDH were observed as 0.007 cc/g and 3.115 nm. The impact of parameters like initial dye concentration, pH and adsorbent dosage on the dye removal efficiency was confirmed by carrying out Box-Behnken design experiments. Langmuir isotherm was well suited for both CV and MG adsorption among other isotherm models. The adsorption capacity was maximally obtained as 129.87 and 126.58 mg/g for CV and MG respectively. Pseudo-second order fits the adsorption kinetics than any other kinetic models for both the dyes. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorption process of CV was exothermic, whereas for MG was endothermic. Electrostatic attraction, H-bonding, n-π and π- π interactions were mainly influenced in the adsorption process. This study concludes that C–Zn–Al LDH is an efficient adsorbent for the CV and MG dye removal from aqueous solutions.

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Glucose Carbon-coated Zn–Al LDH Adsorption Isotherms & kinetics Box-Behnken design 



The authors would like to thank Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore Campus, for giving the necessary facilities and infrastructure to perform this work. We would also like to thank the lab staffs and technicians in fulfilling our lab needs and supplies.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
corrected publication September/2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giphin George
    • 1
  • Manickam Puratchiveeran Saravanakumar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Civil and Chemical EngineeringVellore Institute of TechnologyVelloreIndia

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