Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 30451–30462 | Cite as

Vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands for the removal of petroleum contaminants from secondary refinery effluent at the Kaduna refining plant (Kaduna, Nigeria)

  • Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha
  • Hans Johan Jacobus Albert van Bruggen
  • Piet N. L. Lens
Research Article

Abstract

Typha latifolia-planted vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (VSSF CWs) and an unplanted microcosm constructed wetland were used for treating secondary refinery wastewater from the Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC, Nigeria). Cow dung was applied to the planted wetlands at the start of the experiment and after 3 months to enhance plant growth and petroleum degradation. The T. latifolia-planted VSSF CWs removed 45–99% total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), 99–100% phenol, 70–80% oil and grease, 45–91% chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 46–88% total suspended solids (TSSs). The performance of the unplanted control VSSF CW achieved lower removal efficiencies (15–58% TPH, 86–91% phenol, 16–44% oil and grease, 24–66% COD, and 20–55% TSS). T. latifolia plants had a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) > 1 for phenol, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphate (TP), suggesting a high removal performance for these contaminants and good translocation ability (TF) for TPH, phenol, oil and grease, and TN, with the exception of TP which was mainly retained in their roots (BAF = 47). This study showed T. latifolia is a good candidate plant to be used in VSSF CWs for polishing secondary refinery wastewater in developing countries.

Keywords

Constructed wetlands Petroleum pollutants Secondary refinery effluent Treatment performance Bioaccumulation Translocation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the management of the Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company (Kaduna, Nigeria) for giving the opportunity to conduct this research in their company.

Funding information

We also thank the Government of the Netherlands for their financial assistance (the NUFFIC program) (NFP-PhD CF7447/2011) and the TETFUND (Tertiary Education Trust Fund) for the staff training through the Federal University of Technology, Minna (Nigeria).

References

  1. Abidi S, Kallali H, Jedidi N, Bouzaiane O, Hassen A (2009) Comparative pilot study of the performances of two constructed wetland wastewater treatment hybrid systems. Desalination 246:370–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adewole MB, Bulu YI (2012) Influence of different organic-based fertilizers on the phytoremediating potential of Calopogonium mucunoides Desv. from crude oil polluted soils. J Bioremediat Biodegrad 3(4):1–6.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6199.1000144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahuja S, Sharma HK, Bhasin SK, Dogra P, Khatri S (2011) Removal of contaminants using plants: a review. J Curr Trends Biotechnol Chem Res 1(1):11–21Google Scholar
  4. APHA (2002) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. APHA, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  5. Aslam MM, Malik M, Baig M, Qazi I, Iqbal J (2007) Treatment performances of compost-based and gravel-based vertical flow wetlands operated identically for refinery wastewater treatment in Pakistan. Ecol Eng 30:34–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Basumatary B, Saikia R, Bordoloi S, Das HP (2012) Assessment of potential plant species for phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated areas of upper Assam, India. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 87:1329–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen TY, Kao CM, Yeh TY, Chien HY, Chao AC (2006) Application of a constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment: a pilot-scale study. Chemosphere 64:497–502.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.11.069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheng S, Grosse W, Kerrenbrock F, Thoennessen M (2002) Efficiency of constructed wetlands in decontamination of water polluted by heavy metals. Ecol Eng 18(3):317–325.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(01)00091-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ciria MP, Solano ML, Soriano P (2005) Role of macrophyte Typha latifolia in a constructed wetland for wastewater treatment and assessment of its potential as a biomass fuel. Biosys Eng 92(4):535–544.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2005.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clinton H, Ujagwung GU Sr, Horsefall M Jr (2009) Evaluation of total hydrocarbon levels in some aquatic media in an oil polluted mangrove wetland in the Niger Delta. Appl Ecol Environ Res 7(2):111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cook RL, Hesterberg D (2013) Comparison of trees and grasses for rhizoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Int J Phytoremediation 15:844–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Das N, Chandran P (2011) Review article. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants: an overview. Biotechnol Res Int 2011:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/941810 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Debing J, Lianbi Z, Xiaosong Y, Jianming H, Mengbin Z, Yuzhong W (2009) COD, TN and TP removal of Typha wetland vegetation of different structures. Pol J Environ Stud 18(2):183–190Google Scholar
  14. Deng H, Ye ZH, Wong MH (2004) Accumulation of lead, zinc, copper and cadmium by 12 wetland plant species thriving in metal-contaminated sites in China. Environmental Pollution 132:29–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2004.03.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dordio, A., & Carvalho, A. (2013). Organic xenobiotics removal in constructed wetlands, with emphasis on the importance of the support matrix. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 272–292. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hazra M, Avishek K, Pathak G (2011) Developing an artificial wetland system for wastewater treatment: a designing perspective. Int J Environ Prot 1(1):8–18 Retrieved September 6, 2014, from www.ijep.org Google Scholar
  17. Hijosa-Valsero M, Sidrach-Cardona R, Bécares E (2012) Comparison of interannual removal variation of various constructed wetland types. Sci Total Environ 430:174–183.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.072 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hill DT, Kown SR (1997) Ammonia effects on the biomass production of five constructed wetland plant species. Bioprocess Technol 62(3):109–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(97)00085-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Israel AU, Obot IB, Umoren SA, Mkepenie V, Ebong GA (2008) Effluents and solid waste analysis in a petrochemical company—a case STUDY of Eleme Petrochemical Company Ltd., Port Harcourt, Nigeria. E-J Chem 5(1):74–80 Retrieved from http://www.e-journals.net CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jones RK, Sun WH, Tang C-S, Robert FM (2004) Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in tropical coastal soils II. Microbial response to plant roots and contaminant. Environ Sci Pollut. Res 11(5):340–346.  https://doi.org/10.1065/espr2004.05.199.2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lin Q, Mendelssohn IA (1998) The combined effects of phytoremediation and biostimulation in enhancing habitat restoration and oil degradation of petroleum contaminated wetlands. Ecol Eng 10:263–274.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(98)00015-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu D, Wu X, Chang J, Min Y, Ge Y, Shi Y et al (2012) Constructed wetlands as biofuel production systems. Nat Clim Chang 2(3):190–194.  https://doi.org/10.1013/NCLIMATE1370 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lotfinasabasl S, Gunale VR, Rajurkar NS (2013) Petroleum hydrocarbons pollution in soil and its bioaccumulation in mangrove species, Avicennia marina from Alibaug mangrove ecosystem, Maharashtra, India. Int J Adv Res Tec 2(2):1–7Google Scholar
  24. Mmom PC, Decker T (2010) Assessing the effectiveness of land farming in the remediation of hydrocarbon polluted soils in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol 2(7):654–660Google Scholar
  25. Mustapha H, van Bruggen J, Lens P (2015) Vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands for polishing secondary Kaduna refinery wastewater in Nigeria. Ecol Eng 84:588–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mustapha HI, van Bruggen JJ, Lens PN (2018). Fate of heavy metals in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating secondary treated petroleum refinery wastewater in Kaduna, Nigeria. Int J Phytorem 1–10. : https://doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2017.1337062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pan J, Zhang H, Li W, Ke F (2012) Full-scale experiment on domestic wastewater treatment by combining artificial aeration vertical- and horizontal-flow constructed wetlands system. Water Air Soil Pollut 223(9):5673–5683.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-012-1306-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pardue MJ, Castle JW, Rodgers JH Jr, Huddleston GM III (2014) Treatment of oil and grease in produced water by a pilot-scale constructed wetland system using biogeochemical processes. Chemosphere 103:67–73. Retrieved November 14, 2014, from.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.11.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Perbangkhem T, Polprasert C (2010) Biomass production of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) in constructed wetland treating low-strength domestic wastewater. Bioprocess Technol 101:833–835.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Qianxin L, Mendelssohn IA (2009) Potential of restoration and phytoremediation with Juncus roemerianus for diesel-contaminated coastal wetlands. Ecol Eng 35:85–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.09.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rezvani M, Zaefarian F (2011) Bioaccumulation and translocation factors of cadmium and lead in Aeluropus littoralis. Aust J Agric Eng 2(4):114–119Google Scholar
  32. Sathishkumar M, Binupriya AR, Baik S-H, Yun S-E (2008) Biodegradation of crude oil by individual bacterial strains and a mixed bacterial consortium isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated areas. Clean 36(1):92–96Google Scholar
  33. Schaafsma JA, Baldwin AH, Streb CA (2000) An evaluation of a constructed wetland to treat wastewater from dairy farm in Maryland, USA. Ecol Eng 14:199–206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(99)00029-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shabir G, Afzal M, Tahseen R, Iqbal S, Khan QM, Khalid ZM (2013) Treatment of oil refinery wastewater using pilot scale fed batch reactor followed by coagulation and sand filtration. Am J Environ Protect 1(1):10–13.  https://doi.org/10.1269/env-1-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stefanakis AI, Tsihrintzis VA (2012) Effects of loading, resting period, temperature, porous media, vegetation and aeration on performance of pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands. Chem Eng J 181–182:416–430.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.11.108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stefanakis AI, Seeger E, Dorer C, Sinke A, Thullner M (2016) Performance of pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating groundwater contaminated with phenols and petroleum derivatives. Ecol Eng 95:514–526.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stottmeister U, Wießner A, Kuschk P, Kappelmeyer M, Kästner M, Bederski O et al (2003) Effects of plants and microorganisms in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Biotechnol Adv 22:93–117.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2003.08.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wallace, S., Schmidt, M., & Larson, E. (2011). Long term hydrocarbon removal using treatment wetlands. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (pp. 1–10). Denver: Society of Petroleum Engineers. Retrieved October 8, 2014, from http://naturallywallace.com/docs/108_SPE%20145797%20Wallace%202011.pdf
  39. Ying X, Dongmei G, Judong L, Zhenyu W (2011) Plant-microbe interactions to improve crude oil degradation. Energy Procedia 5:844–848.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2011.03.149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yoon J, Cao X, Zhou Q, Ma LQ (2006) Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site. Sci Total Environ 368:456–464.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.01.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hans Johan Jacobus Albert van Bruggen
    • 1
  • Piet N. L. Lens
    • 1
  1. 1.UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water EducationDelftThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural and Bio-Resources EngineeringFederal University of TechnologyMinnaNigeria

Personalised recommendations