Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 30132–30138 | Cite as

Behavioral activity patterns of adult and juvenile Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) with alteration of climatic pattern at Uchalli Lake, Punjab, Pakistan

  • Shabana NazEmail author
  • Arnab Tanveer
  • Muhammad Abrar
  • Asma AshrafEmail author
Research Article


A study was carried out at Uchalli Lake, District Khushab on Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) to find their behavioral activity pattern. The hypothesis that local climatic temperature affects the wintering behavior of Greater Flamingos was tested. Data were collected for a period of 3 days in March and 10 days in April using focal animal analysis. Each day was divided into four periods (7–8 a.m., 10–11 a.m., 1–2 p.m., and 4–5 p.m.). Activity patterns included characters like feeding, resting, flying, walking, preening, aggression, and alert. Results showed that feeding was the major activity for adults (51.06%) and juveniles (56.51%). Juveniles spent more time (t = − 2.02, p < 0.05) feeding than adults. There was a highly significant difference (t = 3.20, p < 0.01) in alert between adults and juveniles across time periods. Adults spent more time alert (8.3%) than juveniles (4.49%). Only aggression and alert in adults and walking and alert in juveniles was found significantly correlated to change with temperature. The findings of the present study highlighted the need of in-depth eco-ethological study of Greater Flamingo and hydrology of wetland.


Greater Flamingos Uchalli Activity pattern Environmental temperature 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ZoologyGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Punjab Wildlife DepartmentPunjabPakistan

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