Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 30110–30121 | Cite as

Borohydride method modification in synthesizing nano zero valent iron and its application in DDT removal

  • Kubra Ulucan-AltuntasEmail author
  • Eyup Debik
Research Article


Among the methods used in the literature for the synthesizing of nano zero valent iron (nZVI), borohydride is the most commonly used method; it is seen that different variables are used together. In this study, optimum nano zero valent iron (nZVI) synthesizing method using borohydride method has been modified by using multiple optimization method in terms of both particle size and zeta potential. Selected independent variables are selected as iron sulfate concentration, ethanol ratio, and flow rate of borohydride solution. With the optimum synthesis method determined, the lowest particle size was obtained as 70 nm only when the particle size was taken into consideration, whereas 88.2 nm nZVI could be produced when both the particle size and the zeta potential were taken into consideration. In addition, the removal of DDT, which is the most commonly used persistent organic pollutant pesticides in the world, was investigated by nZVI synthesized. Different initial DDT concentration was investigated by expressing oxidation reduction potential (ORP) difference, removal rates, and oxidation byproducts. When DDD and DDE concentrations are considered, it is found that DDT is more likely to oxidize in DDD in all studied initial DDT concentrations. Removal rate was higher than 80% with initial concentrations lower than 125 μg/L, which is a high concentration that could be found in surface waters.


nZVI DDT metabolites Response surface methodology Desirability function Multiple optimization 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have received research grants from Research Fund of the Yildiz Technical University. Project Number: 2015-05-02-DOP02. Also, Kubra Ulucan-Altuntas was supported by TUBITAK Scientist Supporting Board during the study.


  1. Altuntas K, Debik E (2017): DDT REMOVAL BY NANO ZERO VALENT IRON: INFLUENCE OF pH ON REMOVAL MECHANISM In: Shelly PDM, Ozaslan PDM (Hrsg.), International Conference on Technology, Engineering and Science. ISRES Publishing, Antalya- Turkey, pp. 339–346Google Scholar
  2. Altuntas K, Debik E, Kozal D, Yoruk II (2017) Adsorption of copper metal ion from aqueous solution by nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) supported on activated carbon. PEN.
  3. Derringer G, Suich R (1980) Simultaneous-optimization of several response variables. J Qual Technol 12:214–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Feng He DZ (2005) Preparation and characterization of a new class of starch-stabilized bimetallic nanoparticles for degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water. Environ Sci Technol 39:3314–3320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Harrington ECJ (1965) The desirability function. Industrial Quality Control 21:494–498Google Scholar
  6. Hwang YH, Kim DG, Shin HS (2011) Effects of synthesis conditions on the characteristics and reactivity of nano scale zero valent iron. Appl Catal B Environ 105:144–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jamei MR, Khosravi MR, Anvaripour B (2013) Investigation of ultrasonic effect on synthesis of nano zero valent iron particles and comparison with conventional method. Asia Pac J Chem Eng 8:767–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kathleen Sellers CM, Bergeson LL, Clough SR, Koyt M, Chen J, Henry K, Hamblen J (2009) Nanotechnology and the environment. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  9. Li L, Fan M, Brown RC, Van Leeuwen J, Wang J, Wang W, Song Y, Zhang P (2006a) Synthesis, properties, and environmental applications of nanoscale Iron-based materials: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 36:405–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Li X-Q, Elliott DW, Zhang W-X (2006b) Zero-valent Iron nanoparticles for abatement of environmental pollutants: materials and engineering aspects. Crit Rev Solid State Mater Sci 31:111–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Rathor G, Chopra N, Adhikari T (2017) Remediation of nickel ion from soil and water using Nano particles of zero-valent Iron (nZVI). Orient J Chem 33:1025–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Stefaniuk M, Oleszczuk P, Ok YS (2016) Review on nano zerovalent iron (nZVI): from synthesis to environmental applications. Chem Eng J 287:618–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Uzum C, Shahwan T, Eroglu A, Hallam K, Scott T, Lieberwirth I (2009) Synthesis and characterization of kaolinite-supported zero-valent iron nanoparticles and their application for the removal of aqueous Cu2+ and Co2+ ions. Appl Clay Sci 43:172–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wang W, Jin ZH, Li TL, Zhang H, Gao S (2006) Preparation of spherical iron nanoclusters in ethanol-water solution for nitrate removal. Chemosphere 65:1396–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Xu CH, Zhu LJ, Wang XH, Lin S, Chen YM (2014) Fast and highly efficient removal of chromate from aqueous solution using nanoscale zero-valent Iron/activated carbon (NZVI/AC). Water Air Soil Pollut 225:1845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Zhang W-X, Elliott DW (2006) Applications of iron nanoparticles for groundwater remediation. Remediat J 16:7–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Engineering DepartmentYildiz Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations