Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 30597–30608 | Cite as

Prooxidant effects of chronic exposure to deltamethrin in green toad Bufotes viridis

  • Mohammed M. Nasia
  • Tijana B. RadovanovićEmail author
  • Imre I. Krizmanić
  • Marko D. Prokić
  • Jelena P. Gavrić
  • Svetlana G. Despotović
  • Branka R. Gavrilović
  • Slavica S. Borković-Mitić
  • Slađan Z. Pavlović
  • Zorica S. Saičić
Research Article


Pesticide-induced oxidative stress, as one of mechanism of toxicity, has been a focus of toxicological research. However, there is a lack of data for certain pesticides-oxidative stress effects especially on terrestrial amphibians. This study evaluates the prooxidative effects of orally administered insecticide deltamethrin (DM) in some tissues of the terrestrial toad Bufotes viridis. Toads were randomly divided and assigned to a control group and a test group that was orally exposed to the pesticide (5 mg/kg of body weight/daily) for 21 days. Animals were euthanized from each group on days 7, 14, and 21, and the liver, leg muscle, ventral skin, and gastrointestinal tissue (GIT) were dissected and used for analysis. From battery of investigated antioxidant components, superoxide dismutase (SOD) was the most differentiate parameter in all examined tissues. For the period of prolonged exposure to pesticide, antioxidative strategy of Bufotes viridis was based on SOD utilization in attempt to maintain the oxidative disbalance at acceptable level. The integrated biomarker response (IBR) as the measure of the overall biochemical response to DM exposure revealed that the group exposed for 21 days had the highest response. Our work has offered valuable data ensuring evidence that toads exposed to deltamethrin developed adaptive reactions that were tissue-specific and that DM-generated systemic toxicity was time-dependent. The present work showed that oxidative stress has significant role in pesticide-induced toxicity and contributes to better understanding of ecotoxicological risk in the terrestrial amphibians exposed to DM.


Deltamethrin Chronic exposure Oxidative stress Bufotes viridis Biomarkers Sublethal exposure Pyrethroid 



The authors are grateful to Dr. Goran Poznanović for proofreading the manuscript and to Tamara Petrović for the statistical evaluation that significantly enhanced the quality of the paper.

Funding information

The present study was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, Grant No. 173041.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed M. Nasia
    • 1
  • Tijana B. Radovanović
    • 2
    Email author
  • Imre I. Krizmanić
    • 3
  • Marko D. Prokić
    • 2
  • Jelena P. Gavrić
    • 2
  • Svetlana G. Despotović
    • 2
  • Branka R. Gavrilović
    • 2
  • Slavica S. Borković-Mitić
    • 2
  • Slađan Z. Pavlović
    • 2
  • Zorica S. Saičić
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Biology, Chair of Comparative Physiology and EcophysiologyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”University of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Faculty of Biology, Institute of ZoologyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

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