Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 30375–30389 | Cite as

Industrial air pollution and low birth weight: a case-control study in Texas, USA

  • Xi Gong
  • Yan Lin
  • F. Benjamin Zhan
Research Article

Abstract

Many studies have investigated associations between maternal residential exposures to air pollutants and low birth weight (LBW) in offspring. However, most studies focused on the criteria air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2, CO, and Pb), and only a few studies examined the potential impact of other air pollutants on LBW. This study investigated associations between maternal residential exposure to industrial air emissions of 449 toxics release inventory (TRI) chemicals and LBW in offspring using a case-control study design based on a large dataset consisting of 94,106 LBW cases and 376,424 controls in Texas from 1996 to 2008. Maternal residential exposure to chemicals was estimated using a modified version of the emission-weighted proximity model (EWPM). The model takes into account reported quantities of annual air emission from industrial facilities and the distances between the locations of industrial facilities and maternal residence locations. Binary logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios measuring the association between maternal exposure to different TRI chemicals and LBW in offspring. Odds ratios were adjusted for child’s sex, birth year, gestational length, maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of maternal residence. Among the ten chemicals selected for a complete analysis, maternal residential exposures to five TRI chemicals were positively associated with LBW in offspring. These five chemicals include acetamide (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24, 4.20), p-phenylenediamine (aOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.18, 2.25), 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (aOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.20, 1.66), tributyltin methacrylate (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06, 1.36), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03, 1.20). These findings suggest that maternal residential proximity to industrial air emissions of some chemicals during pregnancy may be associated with LBW in offspring.

Keywords

Air pollution GIS Health Toxic release inventory (TRI) chemicals Low birth weight (LBW) Exposure assessment 

Abbreviations

AAP

ambient air pollution

aOR

adjusted odds ratio

CAP

criteria air pollutant

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CI

confidence interval

DSHS

Texas Department of State Health Services

EWPM

emission weighted proximity model

LBW

low birth weight

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

OR

odds ratio

TRI

toxic release inventory

U.S. EPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research reported in this article was made possible in part by a U.S. EPA-STAR grant (#R834790). The data used in the analyses were obtained from the Center for Health Statistics in the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the U.S. EPA and the Texas DSHS. Furthermore, U.S. EPA, the Texas DSHS, and the authors do not endorse the purchase of any commercial products or services mentioned in this article. The authors wish to thank the support from the U.S. EPA and the Texas DSHS. Xi Gong and F. Benjamin Zhan appreciated the helpful discussions with Drs. Jean D. Brender and Peter H. Langlois about the case-control study design reported in the article. The authors greatly appreciate the helpful comments and suggestions from the editor and three anonymous reviewers.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_2941_MOESM1_ESM.docx (55 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 54 kb)

References

  1. Aguilera I, Guxens M, Garcia-Esteban R, Corbella T, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Foradada CM, Sunyer J (2009) Association between GIS-based exposure to urban air pollution during pregnancy and birth weight in the INMA Sabadell cohort. Environ Health Perspect 117(8):1322–1327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balsa AI, Caffera M, Bloomfield J (2016) Exposures to particulate matter from the eruptions of the puyehue volcano and birth outcomes in Montevideo, Uruguay. Environ Health Perspect 124(11):1816–1822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bell ML, Ebisu K, Belanger K (2007) Ambient air pollution and low birth weight in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Environ Health Perspect 115(7):1118–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berkowitz Z, Price-Green P, Bove FJ, Kaye WE (2006) Lead exposure and birth outcomes in five communities in Shoshone County, Idaho. J Hyg Environ Health 209(2):123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bobak M (2000) Outdoor air pollution, low birth weight, and prematurity. Environ Health Perspect 108(2):173–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bobak M, Richards M, Wadsworth M (2001) Air pollution and birth weight in Britain in 1946. Epidemiology 12(3):358–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brauer M, Lencar C (2008) A cohort study of traffic-related air pollution impacts on birth outcomes. Environ Health Perspect 116(5):680–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brender JD, Shinde MU, Zhan FB, Gong X, Langlois PH (2014) Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case–control study. Environ Health 13(1):96Google Scholar
  9. Brook RD, Franklin B, Cascio W, Hong Y, Howard G, Lipsett M, Luepker R, Mittleman M, Samet J, Smith SC, Tager I (2004) Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the expert panel on population and prevention science of the American Heart Association. Circulation 109(21):2655–2671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brunekreef B, Holgate ST (2002) Air pollution and health. LANCET 360(9341):1233–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Canfield MA, Ramadhani TA, Langlois PH, Waller DK (2006) Residential mobility patterns and exposure misclassification in epidemiologic studies of birth defects. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2006(16):538–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen L, Yang W, Jennison BL, Goodrich A, Omaye ST (2002) Air pollution and birth weight in northern Nevada, 1991-1999. Inhal Toxicol 14(2):141–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cho S, Lee C-K, Kim B (2013) The impacts of air pollution on low birth weight. Appl Econ Lett 20(3):208–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coker E, Liverani S, Ghosh JK, Jerrett M, Beckerman B, Li A, Ritz B, Molitor J (2016) Multi-pollutant exposure profiles associated with term low birth weight in Los Angeles County. Environ Int 91:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Currie J, Schmieder J (2009) Fetal exposure to toxic releases and infant health. Am Econ Rev: Pap Proc Annu Meet Am Econ Assoc 99(2):177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Darrow LA, Klein M, Strickland MJ, Mulholland JA, Tolbert PE (2011) Ambient air pollution and birth weight in full-term infants in Atlanta, 1994-2004. Environ Health Perspect 119(5):731–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dedele A, Grazuleviciene R, Miskinyte A (2017) Individual exposure to nitrogen dioxide and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Kaunas study. Int J Environ Health Res 27(3):230–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Díaz J, Arroyo V, Ortiz C, Carmona R, Linares C (2016) Effect of environmental factors on low weight in non-premature births: a time series analysis. PLoS One 11(10):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dimitriev D, Dimitriev A, Konstantinova Y (2006) Association between ambient air pollution and birth weight in Novocheboksarsk, Russia. Epidemiology 17(6):S105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dominici F, Peng RD, Bell ML, Pham L, McDermott A, Zeger SL, Samet JM (2006) Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. J Am Med Assoc 295(10):1127–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ebisu K, Bell ML (2012) Airborne PM2.5 chemical components and low birth weight in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Environ Health Perspect 120(12):1746–1752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Estarlich M, Ballester F, Aguilera I, Fernandez-Somoano A, Lertxundi A, Llop S, Freire C, Tardon A, Basterrechea M, Sunyer J, Iniguez C (2011) Residential exposure to outdoor air pollution during pregnancy and anthropometric measures at birth in a multicenter cohort in Spain. Environ Health Perspect 119(9):1333–1338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Geer LA, Weedon J, Bell ML (2012) Ambient air pollution and term birth weight in Texas from 1998 to 2004. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 62(11):1285–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gehring U, Wijga A, Fischer P (2011) Traffic-related air pollution, preterm birth and term birth weight in the PIAMA birth cohort study. Environ Res 111(1):125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ghosh JKC, Wilhelm M, Su J, Goldberg D, Cockburn M, Jerrett M, Ritz B (2012) Assessing the influence of traffic-related air pollution on risk of term low birth weight on the basis of land-use-based regression models and measures of air toxics. Am J Epidemiol 175(12):1262–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gladen BC, Zadorozhnaja TD, Chislovska N, Hryhorczuk DO, Kennicutt MC, Little RE (2000) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in placenta. Hum Exp Toxicol 19(11):597–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Godfrey K, Robinson S, Barker D, Osmond C, Cox V (1996) Maternal nutrition in early and late pregnancy in relation to placental and fetal growth. BMJ 312:410–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gong X, Brender JD, Langlois PH, Lin Y, Zhan FB (2016) Validity of the emission weighted proximity model in estimating air pollution exposure intensities in large geographic areas. Sci Total Environ 563–564(2016):478–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Govarts E, Remy S, Bruckers L, Den Hond E, Sioen I, Nelen V, Baeyens W, Nawrot TS, Loots I, Van Larebeke N, Schoeters G (2016) Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13(5):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ha S, Zhu Y, Liu D, Sherman S, Mendola P (2017) Ambient temperature and air quality in relation to small for gestational age and term low birthweight. Environ Res 155:394–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harrath AH, Alwasel S, Khaled I, Mansouri L, Sirotkin AV, Faramawi MF (2015) Pregnancy exposure to atmospheric pollutants and placental weight in a Tunisian population. Fresenius Environ Bull 24(11C):4184–4189Google Scholar
  32. Hediger ML, Overpeck MD, Ruan WJ, Troendle JF (2002) Birthweight and gestational age effects on motor and social development. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 16(1):33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoek G, Krishnan RM, Beelen R, Peters A, Ostro B, Brunekreef B, Kaufman JD (2013) Long-term air pollution exposure and cardio-respiratory mortality: a review. Environ Health 12(1):43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hyder A, Lee HJ, Ebisu K, Koutrakis P, Belanger K, Bell ML (2014) PM2.5 exposure and birth outcomes use of satellite- and monitor-based data. Epidemiology 25(1):58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jacobs M, Zhang G, Chen S, Mullins B, Bell M, Jin L, Guo Y, Huxley R, Pereira G (2017) The association between ambient air pollution and selected adverse pregnancy outcomes in China: a systematic review. Sci Total Environ 579:1179–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Janghorbani M, Piraei E (2013) Association between air pollution and preterm birth among neonates born in Isfahan, Iran. J Res Med Sci 18(10):875–881Google Scholar
  37. Jedrychowski WA, Majewska R, Spengler JD, Camann D, Roen EL, Perera FP (2017) Prenatal exposure to fine particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and birth outcomes: a two-pollutant approach. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 90(3):255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kampa M, Castanas E (2008) Human health effects of air pollution. Environ Pollut 151(2):362–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Laurent O, Hu J, Li L, Cockburn M, Escobedo L, Kleeman MJ, Wul J (2014) Sources and contents of air pollution affecting term low birth weight in Los Angeles County, California, 2001-2008. Environ Res 134:488–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lawlor DA, Ronalds G, Clark H, Davey Smith G, Leon DA (2005) Birth weight is inversely associated with incident coronary heart disease and stroke among individuals born in the 1950s: findings from the Aberdeen children of the 1950s prospective cohort study. Circulation 112(10):1414–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee BE, Park HS, Kim YJ, Hong YC, Kim H, Lee JT, Ha EH (2002) The effect of air pollution on low birth weight by gestational period in Seoul. Epidemiology 13(4):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li X, Huang S, Jiao A, Yang X, Yun J, Wang Y, Xue X, Chu Y, Liu F, Liu Y, Ren M, Chen X, Li N, Lu Y, Mao Z, Tian L, Xiang H (2017) Association between ambient fine particulate matter and preterm birth or term low birth weight: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Pollut 227:596–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Litt J, Taylor HG, Klein N, Hack M (2005) Learning disabilities in children with very low birthweight: prevalence, neuropsychological correlates, and educational interventions. J Learn Disabil 38(2):130–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lupo PJ, Symanski E, Chan W, Mitchell LE, Waller DK, Canfield MA, Langlois PH (2010) Differences in exposure assignment between conception and delivery: the impact of maternal mobility. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 24(2):200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Malmqvist E, Liew Z, Källén K, Rignell-Hydbom A, Rittner R, Rylander L, Ritz B (2017) Fetal growth and air pollution—a study on ultrasound and birth measures. Environ Res 152:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McCormick MC (1985) The contribution of low birth weight to infant mortality and childhood morbidity. N Engl J Med 312(2):82–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McIntire DD, Bloom SL, Casey BM, Leveno KJ (1999) Birth weight in relation to morbidity and mortality among newborn infants. N Engl J Med 340(16):1234–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Merklinger-Gruchala A, Jasienska G, Kapiszewska M (2017) Parity conditions the risk for low birth weight after maternal exposure to air pollution. Biodemography Soc Biol 63(1):71–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Dadvand P, Grellier J, Martinez D, Vrijheid M (2013) Environmental risk factors of pregnancy outcomes: a summary of recent meta-analyses of epidemiological studies. Environ Health 12(6):1–10Google Scholar
  50. Paciorek CJ (2010) The importance of scale for spatial-confounding bias and precision of spatial regression estimators. Stat Sci 25(1):107–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pearce MS, Glinianaia SV, Ghosh R, Rankin J, Rushton S, Charlton M, Parker L, Pless-Mulloli T (2012) Particulate matter exposure during pregnancy is associated with birth weight, but not gestational age, 1962-1992: a cohort study. Environ Health 11(13):1–8Google Scholar
  52. Perera FP, Rauh V, Tsai WY, Kinney P, Camann D, Barr D, Bernert T, Garfinkel R, Tu YH, Diaz D, Dietrich J, Whyatt RM (2003) Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multiethnic population. Environ Health Perspect 111(2):201–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Polichetti G, Cocco S, Spinali A, Trimarco V, Nunziata A (2009) Effects of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5and PM1) on the cardiovascular system. Toxicology 261(1–2):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Polichetti G, Capone D, Grigoropoulos K, Tarantino G, Nunziata A, Gentile A (2013) Effects of ambient air pollution on birth outcomes: an overview. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 43(12):1223–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Quansah R, Jaakkola JJK (2009) Paternal and maternal exposure to welding fumes and metal dusts or fumes and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 82(4):529–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ritz B, Wilhelm M (2008) Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: methodologic issues in an emerging field. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 102(2):182–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Salam M, Millstein J, Li Y (2005) Birth outcomes and prenatal exposure to ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter: results from the Children’s health study. Environ Health Perspect 113(11):1138–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shah PS, Balkhair T, Knowledge synthesis group on determinants of preterm/LBW births (2011) Air pollution and birth outcomes: a systematic review. Environ Int 37(2):498–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Siddiqui AR, Gold EB, Yang X, Lee K, Brown KH, Bhutta ZA (2008) Prenatal exposure to wood fuel smoke and low birth weight. Environ Health Perspect 116(4):543–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Slama R, Thiebaugeorges O, Goua V, Aussel L, Sacco P, Bohet A, Forhan A, Ducot B, Annesi-Maesano I, Heinrich J, Magnin G, Schweitzer M, Kaminski M, Charles M-A, EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study Group (2009) Maternal personal exposure to airborne benzene and intrauterine growth. Environ Health Perspect 117(8):1313–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Srám RJ, Binková BB, Dejmek J, Bobak M (2005) Ambient air pollution and pregnancy outcomes: a review of the literature. Environ Health Perspect 113(4):375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stankovic A, Mitrovic V, Zivadinovic R (2011) Influence of air pollution on birth weight. Srp Arh Celok Lek 139(9–10):651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. U.S. CDC (United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 2015 International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcs/default.html. last Accessed Nov 2017
  64. U.S. CDC (United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 2018 National environmental public health tracking network data explorer. https://ephtracking.cdc.gov/DataExplorer/#/. last Accessed May 2018
  65. U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2013 Learn about the Toxics Release Inventory. http://www2.epa.gov/toxics-release-inventory-tri-program/learn-about-toxics-release-inventory. last Accessed Sept 2017
  66. U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2017 Six Common Air Pollutants. http://www3.epa.gov/airquality/urbanair. updated 2017; last Accessed Sept 2017
  67. U.S. NOAA (U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) 2016 CAMEO Chemicals, Database of Hazardous Materials. Available: https://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/. last Accessed Nov 2017
  68. Valero De Bernabé J, Soriano T, Albaladejo R, Juarranz M, Calle ME, Martínez D, Domínguez-Rojas V (2004) Risk factors for low birth weight: a review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 116(1):3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Vassilev ZP, Robson MG, Klotz JB (2001a) Associations of polycyclic organic matter in outdoor air with decreased birth weight: a pilot cross-sectional analysis. J Toxic Environ Health A 64(8):595–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vassilev ZP, Robson MG, Klotz JB (2001b) Outdoor exposure to airborne polycyclic organic matter and adverse reproductive outcomes: a pilot study. Am J Ind Med 40(3):255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Veleminsky M, Hanzl M, Sram RJ (2016) The impact of air pollution in the southern bohemia region on fetuses and newborns. Neuroendocrinol Lett 37(2):52–57Google Scholar
  72. Wang XB, Ding H, Ryan L, Xu XP (1997) Association between air pollution and low birth weight: a community-based study. Environ Health Perspect 105(5):514–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Watkins WJ, Kotecha SJ, Kotecha S (2016) All-cause mortality of low birthweight infants in infancy, childhood, and adolescence: population study of England and Wales. PLoS Med 13(5):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Whincup P, Kaye S, Owen C, Huxley R, Cook D, Anazawa S, Barrett-Connor E, Bhargava S, Birgisdottir B, Carlsson S, Rooij D, Dyck R, Eriksson J, Falkner B, Fall C, Forsén T, Grill V, Gudnason V, Hulman S, Hyppönen E, Jeffreys M, Lawlor D, Leon D, Minami J, Mishra G, Osmond C, Power C, Rich-Edwards J, Roseboom T, Sachdev H, Syddall H, Thorsdottir I, Vanhala M, Wadsworth M, Yarbrough D (2008) Birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. J Am Med Assoc 300(24):2886–2897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wilhelm M, Ghosh JK, Su J, Cockburn M, Jerrett M, Ritz B (2012) Traffic-related air toxics and term low birth weight in Los Angeles County, California. Environ Health Perspect 120(1):132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Williams BL, Pennock-Roman M, Suen HK, Magsumbol MS, Ozdenerol E (2007) Assessing the impact of the local environment on birth outcomes: a case for HLM. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 17(5):445–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Xu X, Sharma RK, Talbott EO, Zborowski JV, Rager J, Arena VC, Volz CD (2011) PM10 air pollution exposure during pregnancy and term low birth weight in Allegheny County, PA, 1994-2000. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 84(3):251–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zahran S, Weiler S, Mielke HW, Pena AA (2012) Maternal benzene exposure and low birth weight risk in the United States: a natural experiment in gasoline reformulation. Environ Res 112:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zhan FB, Brender JD, Langlois PH, Yang J 2015 Air Pollution-Exposure-Health Effect Indicators: Mining massive geographically referenced environmental health data to identify risk factors for birth defects. Final report (2011–2015; 325 pages), U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  80. Zou B, Wilson JG, Zhan FB, Zeng Y (2009a) Air pollution exposure assessment methods utilized in epidemiological studies. J Environ Monit 11(3):475–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zou B, Wilson JG, Zhan FB, Zeng Y (2009b) An emission-weighted proximity model for air pollution exposure assessment. Sci Total Environ 407(17):4939–4945CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography & Environmental StudiesUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Texas Center for Geographic Information Science, Department of GeographyTexas State UniversitySan MarcosUSA

Personalised recommendations