Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 28, pp 28460–28470 | Cite as

Relationship between phytoplankton community and environmental factors in landscape water with high salinity in a coastal city of China

  • Nan Wang
  • Jiaqing XiongEmail author
  • Xiaochang C. Wang
  • Yan Zhang
  • Honglei Liu
  • Bin Zhou
  • Pan Pan
  • Yanzheng Liu
  • Feiyang Ding
Research Article


Relationship between phytoplankton community and environmental variables was explored in three landscape water bodies (namely Jiyun River Oxbow (JRO), Qingjing Lake (QL), and Jiyun River (JR)) with high salinity, located in Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city of China, using redundancy analysis (RDA). A total of 48 species of phytoplankton were identified during the study period, in which Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta accounted for 35.42 and 31.25%, respectively. The most dominant species of the studied water bodies were Cyclotella meneghiniana (Bacillariophyta) and Aphanocapsa elachista (Cyanophyta). The diversity index ranged from 0.56 to 1.42, with an average of 1.11, reflecting low biodiversity in the phytoplankton community. Moreover, the average density of phytoplankton was 42.39 × 106 cells/L, indicating that those landscape water bodies belonged to moderate eutrophication. The results of RDA revealed that the most significant environmental factors influencing phytoplankton community were water temperature (WT), dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), salinity, and total nitrogen (TN) (p < 0.05, Monte Carlo permutation test). Meanwhile, Aphanocapsa elachista was positively correlated with WT, TN, and salinity, while Cyclotella meneghiniana was positively related to salinity and negatively related to TP. The results suggested that salinity was a non-negligible key factor affecting the phytoplankton community of the water body with high salinity.


High salinity Landscape water Phytoplankton Environmental factors RDA 


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Program of Water Pollution Control (Grant No. 2012ZX07308-001-08), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (Grant No. IRT0853), the Shaanxi Innovative Research Team Program for Key Science and Technology (No. IRT2013-13), and China Scholarship Council.


  1. Becker V, Caputo L, Ordóñez J, Marcé R, Armengol J, Crossetti LO, Huszar VLM (2010) Driving factors of the phytoplankton functional groups in a deep Mediterranean reservoir. Water Res 44:3345–3354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bolgovics Á, Várbíró G, Ács É, Trábert Z, Kiss KT, Pozderka V, Görgényi J, Boda P, Lukács B-A, Nagy-László Z, Abonyi A, Borics G (2017) Phytoplankton of rhithral rivers: its origin, diversity and possible use for quality-assessment. Ecol Indic 81:587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brettum P (1996) Changes in the volume and composition of phytoplankton after experimental acidification of a humic lake. Environ Int 22:619–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Çelekli A, Öztürk B, Kapı M (2014) Relationship between phytoplankton composition and environmental variables in an artificial pond. Algal Res 5:37–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cetinić I, Viličić D, Burić Z, Olujć G (2006) Phytoplankton seasonality in a highly stratified karstic estuary (Krka, Adriatic Sea). Hydrobiologia 555(1):31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang LI, Qin HP, Zhang YY, Wang WW (2011) Algae growth simulation of reclaimed wastewater recycled to landscape water body in different seasons. Environ Sci Technol 34:47–51Google Scholar
  7. Daines SJ, Clark JR, Lenton TM (2014) Multiple environmental controls on phytoplankton growth strategies determine adaptive responses of the N:P ratio. Ecol Lett 17(4):414–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eker E, Georgieva L, Senichkina L, Kideys AE (1999) Phytoplankton distribution in the western and eastern Black Sea in spring and autumn 1995. ICES J Mar Sci 56:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Environmental Protection Agency of China (EPAC) (2002) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, fourth edn. Chinese Environmental Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. Evagelopoulos A, Spyrakos E, Koutsoubas D (2007) The biological system of the lower salinity ponds in Kalloni Saltworks (NE. Aegean Sea, Greece): phytoplankton and macrobenthic invertebrates. Trans Waters Bull 1:23–25Google Scholar
  11. Fathi AA, Flower RJ (2005) Water quality and phytoplankton communities in Lake Qarun (Egypt). Aquat Sci 67:350–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gasiūnaitė ZR, Cardoso AC, Heiskanen AS, Henriksen P, Kauppila P, Olenina I, Pilkaitytė R, Purina I, Razinkovas A, Sagert S (2005) Seasonality of coastal phytoplankton in the Baltic Sea: influence of salinity and eutrophication. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 65:239–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gotham IJ (1981) The effect of environmental factors on phytoplankton growth: temperature and the interactions of temperature with nutrient limitation. Limnol Oceanogr 26:635–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gurbuz H, Kivrak E, Soyupak S, Yerli SV (2003) Predicting dominant phytoplankton quantities in a reservoir by using neural networks. Hydrobiologia 504:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Henny C, Meutia AA (2014) Urban lakes in megacity Jakarta: risk and management plan for future sustainability. Procedia Environ Sci 20:737–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu H, Wei Y (2006) The freshwater algae of China-systematics, taxonomy and ecology. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. Huser BJ, Futter M, Lee JT, Perniel M (2016) In-lake measures for phosphorus control: the most feasible and cost-effective solution for long-term management of water quality in urban lakes. Water Res 97:142–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Israël N, Vanlandeghem MM, Denny S, Ingle J, Patiño R (2014) Golden alga presence and abundance are inversely related to salinity in a high-salinity river ecosystem, Pecos River, USA. Harmful Algae 39:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jiang YJ, He W, Liu WX, Qin N, Ouyang HL, Wang QM, Kong XZ, He QS, Yang C, Yang B, Xu FL (2014) The seasonal and spatial variations of phytoplankton community and their correlation with environmental factors in a large eutrophic Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu). Ecol Indic 40:58–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Karydis M, Tsirtsis G (1996) Ecological indices: a biometric approach for assessing eutrophication levels in the marine environment. Sci Total Environ 186:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuang QJ, Ming MP, Yu HZ, Jie ZG (2005) Study on the evaluation and treatment of lake eutrophication by means of algae biology. J Saf Environ 5(2):87–91 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  22. Larson CA, Belovsky GE (2013) Salinity and nutrients influence species richness and evenness of phytoplankton communities in microcosm experiments from Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. J Plankton Res 35:1154–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lehtimaki J, Moisander P, Sivonen K, Kononen K (1997) Growth, nitrogen fixation, and nodularin production by two Baltic Sea cyanobacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 63:1647Google Scholar
  24. Leps J, Smilauer P (2003) Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu C, Liu L, Shen H (2010) Seasonal variations of phytoplankton community structure in relation to physico-chemical factors in Lake Baiyangdian, China. Procedia Environ Sci 2:1622–1631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lopes MRM, Bicudo CEDM, Ferragut MC (2005) Short term spatial and temporal variation of phytoplankton in a shallow tropical oligotrophic reservoir, southeast Brazil. Hydrobiologia 542:235–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Muylaert K, Sabbe K, Vyverman W (2000) Spatial and temporal dynamics of phytoplankton communities in a freshwater tidal estuary (Schelde, Belgium). Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 50:673–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Naselliflores L (2000) Phytoplankton assemblages in twenty-one Sicilian reservoirs: relationships between species composition and environmental factors. Hydrobiologia 424:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Oliva MG, Lugo A, Alcocer J, Peralta L, del Rosario SM (2001) Phytoplankton dynamics in a deep, tropical, hyposaline lake. Hydrobiologia 466:299–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ou T, Li QH, Wang AP, Zhang L, Huang GJ, Jiao SL, Gao TJ (2014) The correlation between dynamic change of phytoplankton community structure and environmental factors in Sanbanxi Reservoir of Guizhou Plateau. Chi J Ecol 33:3432–3439 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  31. Padisák J, Borics G, Grigorszky I, Soróczki-Pintér É (2006) Use of phytoplankton assemblages for monitoring ecological status of lakes within the water framework directive: the assemblage index. Hydrobiologia 553:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Reynolds CS (2006) The ecology of phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Reynolds CS, Huszar VLM, Kruk C, N-F L, Melo S (2002) Towards a functional classification of the freshwater phytoplankton. J Plankton Res 24:417–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rosińska J, Kozak A, Dondajewska R, Gołdyn R (2017) Cyanobacteria blooms before and during the restoration process of a shallow urban lake. J Environ Manag 198:340–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shannon CE, Weaver W (1949) The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  36. Smith VH (1982) The nitrogen and phosphorus dependence of algal biomass in lakes: an empirical and theoretical analysis. Limnol Oceanogr 27:1101–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Song (2014) Community structure of phytoplankton in Xiaoheli River reservoir and its upstream rivers. Northeast Forestry University (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  38. Sun CC, Wang YS, Sun S, Zhang FQ (2006) Analysis dynamics of phytoplankton community characteristics in Daya Bay. Acta Ecol Sin 26(12):3948–3958 (in Chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sun L, Jin XC, Zhong Y, Zhi YL, Li H, Zhou QX, Zhuang YY (2009) Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in relation to key aquatic habitat factors in a polluted urban small water body in Tianjin, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 82:543–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ter-Braak CJFT (1986) Canonical correspondence analysis: a new eigenvector technique for multivariate direct gradient analysis. Ecology 67(5):1167–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ter-Braak CJF, Šmilauer PN (2002) Canoco reference manual and CanoDraw for windows user’s guide: software for canonical community ordination (Version 4.5). Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Tian C, Pei HY, Hu WR, Xie J (2013a) Phytoplankton variation and its relationship with the environmental factors in Nansi Lake, China. Environ Monit Assess 185:295–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tian C, Lu X, Pei H, Hu W, Xie J (2013b) Seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton and its relationship with the environmental factors in Dongping Lake, China. Environ Monit Assess 185:2627–2645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang L, Wang C, Deng D, Zhao X, Zhou Z (2015) Temporal and spatial variations in phytoplankton: correlations with environmental factors in Shengjin Lake, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:14144–14156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wasmund N (1997) Occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea in relation to environmental conditions. Int Rev Hydrobiol 82:169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wasmund N, Zalewski M, Busch S (1999) Phytoplankton in large river plumes in the Baltic Sea. Ices J Marineence 56:23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Weng JZ, Xu HS (2010) Atlas of common freshwater algae in China. Science Technology Press, Shanghai (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  48. Williams WD, Boulton AJ, Taaffe RG (1990) Salinity as a determinant of salt lake fauna: a question of scale. Hydrobiologia 197:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Xiao LJ, Wang T, Hu R, Han BP, Wang S, Qian X, Padisák J (2011) Succession of phytoplankton functional groups regulated by monsoonal hydrology in a large canyon-shaped reservoir. Water Res 45:5099–5109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Xiong J, Wang XC, Zhang Q, Duan R, Wang N (2016) Characteristics of a landscape water with high salinity in a coastal city of China and measures for eutrophication control. Ecol Indic 61:268–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yin D, Zheng L, Song L (2011) Spatio-temporal distribution of phytoplankton in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, a water source area for the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (Middle Route), China. Chin J Oceanol Limnol 29:531–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhang NN, Zang SY (2015) Characteristics of phytoplankton distribution for assessment of water quality in the Zhalong Wetland, China. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12:3657–3664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhao W, He ZH (1999) Biological and ecological features of inland saline waters in North Hebei, China. Int J Salt Lake Res 8:267–285Google Scholar
  54. Zhao W, Zheng MP, Xu XZ, Fang LX, Guo GL, He ZH (2005) Biological and ecological features of saline lakes in northern Tibet, China. Hydrobiologia 541:189–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhao HJ, Wang Y, Yang LL, Yuan LW, Peng DC (2015) Relationship between phytoplankton and environmental factors in landscape water supplemented with reclaimed water. Ecol Indic 58:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhao W, Zhao YY, Wang QH, Zheng MP, Wei J, Wang S (2016) The community structure and seasonal dynamics of plankton in Bange Lake, northern Tibet, China. Chin J Oceanol Limnol 34:1143–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhu K, Bi Y, Hu Z (2013) Responses of phytoplankton functional groups to the hydrologic regime in the Daning River, a tributary of Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Sci Total Environ 450-451:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nan Wang
    • 1
  • Jiaqing Xiong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xiaochang C. Wang
    • 1
  • Yan Zhang
    • 2
  • Honglei Liu
    • 2
  • Bin Zhou
    • 2
  • Pan Pan
    • 1
    • 3
  • Yanzheng Liu
    • 1
  • Feiyang Ding
    • 1
  1. 1.International S&T Cooperation Center for Urban Alternative Water Resources Development, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Key Lab of Northwest Water Resources, Environment and Ecology, MOE, School of Environmental and Municipal EngineeringXi’an University of Architecture and TechnologyXi’anChina
  2. 2.Tianjin Academy of Environmental SciencesTianjinChina
  3. 3.Wuhuan Engineering Co. Ltd.WuhuanChina

Personalised recommendations