ADMI color and toxicity reductions in raw textile mill effluent and dye mixtures by TiO2/UV is limited by presence of vat dyes
Full-scale application of heterogeneous photocatalysis for industrial wastewater treatment remains a challenge because of the complex nature of these matrices and the potential to form toxic by-products during treatment. A recent unsuccessful attempt to find adequate conditions for TiO2/UV treatment of a cotton dyeing textile mill led to this study on the treatability of mixtures of the dyes used in the greatest amounts at the mill and therefore most likely to be present in mill effluent. Four reactive and three vat dyes were mixed in different combinations and treated (10 mg/L of each dye, 0.5 mg/L TiO2, pH 4) to evaluate the influence of the different dyes on ADMI color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and acute toxicity. While ADMI color removal was similar in all dye mixtures, COD removal was higher when vat dyes were absent. When treated individually, vat dyes exhibited greater recalcitrance, with no ADMI color removal and COD removals of less than 30%. Toxicity to Daphnia similis was decreased or eliminated from dye mixtures that exhibited the highest COD removals and corresponded to those in which reactive dyes were partially degraded. For raw textile mill effluent, photocatalysis reduced but did not eliminate treated effluent toxicity (EC50 = 26.8%).
KeywordsDaphnia similis Textile dye Heterogeneous photocatalysis
The authors would like to thank the Brazilian and Minas Gerais research agencies, CAPES, CNPq, and FAPEMIG, for scholarship support. The authors are grateful for the technical support provided by José Francisco Dias (in memoriam) from Universidade Federal de Viçosa’s (UFV’s) Soils Department. The authors would also like to acknowledge UFV’s Nucleus of Microscopy and Microanalysis (http://www.nmm.ufv.br/) for providing the equipment and technical support for experiments involving electron microscopy.
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