Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4498–4509 | Cite as

Oxidation of ethylenethiourea in water via ozone enhanced by UV-C: identification of transformation products

  • Sue Ellen C. BottrelEmail author
  • Pedro C. Pereira
  • Renata de Oliveira Pereira
  • Mônica M. D. Leão
  • Camila C. Amorim
Advanced Oxidation Technologies: State-of-the-Art in Ibero-American Countries


Ethylenethiourea (ETU) is a toxic degradation product of one class of fungicide which is largely employed in the world, the ethylenebisdithiocarbamates. In this study, ETU was degraded by ozonation enhanced by UV-C light irradiation (O3/UV-C) in aqueous medium. Degradation experiments were conducted at natural pH (6.8) and neutral pH (7.0, buffered). ETU was promptly eliminated from the reactive medium during ozonation in the presence and absence of light. Within the first few minutes of reaction conducted in natural pH, the pH decreased quickly from 6.8 to 3.0. Results show that ETU mineralization occurs only in the reaction conducted in neutral pH and that it takes place in a higher rate when enhanced by UV-C irradiation. Main intermediates formed during the O3/UV-C experiments in different conditions tested were also investigated and three different degradation mechanisms were proposed considering the occurrence of direct and indirect ozone reactions. At pH 7, ethylene urea (EU) was quickly generated and degraded. Meanwhile, at natural pH, besides EU, other compounds originated from the electrophilic attack of ozone to the sulfur atom present in the contaminant molecule were also identified during reaction and EU was detected within 60 min of reaction. Results showed that ozonation enhanced by UV-C promotes a faster reaction than the same system in the absence of light, and investigation of the toxicity is recommended.


Pesticide treatment Ozonation UV-C radiation Advanced oxidative process Ethylenethiourea Pesticide by-product 


Funding information

The authors thank Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPQ) for the financial support.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_2560_MOESM1_ESM.docx (51 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 50 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departament of Sanitary and Environmental EngineeringUniversidade Federal de Juiz de ForaJuiz de ForaBrazil
  2. 2.Departament of Sanitary and Environmental EngineeringUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil

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