Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4234–4241 | Cite as

Photodegradation of cyclohexane and toluene using TiO2/UV/O3 in gas phase

  • Luís Antonio MarchioriEmail author
  • Úrsula Luana Rochetto Doubek
  • Bárbara Maria Borges Ribeiro
  • Tânia Miyoko Fujimoto
  • Edson TomazEmail author
Advanced Oxidation Technologies: State-of-the-Art in Ibero-American Countries


Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are air pollutants usually found in urban and industrial areas. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an interesting technique used to degrade these compounds. Several approaches may enhance this process; some studies have shown higher VOC conversions by adding ozone to the experimental system, once ozone increases the number of reactive radicals in the reaction. In this context, this work studied the conversion of cyclohexane and toluene by heterogeneous photocatalysis in gas phase, in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2), UV light, and different concentrations of ozone. For fixed space times from 13.1 to 48.8 s, an average increase of 9% was reached in cyclohexane conversion when comparing the system with maximum concentration of ozone (0.8%) and the system without it. In addition, difference of less than 2% in the conversion of cyclohexane with different moisture fractions was observed. Toluene photodegradation was also analyzed in the presence of ozone and although the conversion was only about 40% for the space time of 25 s, this result was maintained during 4 h of experiment, with no catalyst deactivation as usually reported in the literature for aromatic compounds. Based on the results, ozone addition is an advantageous technique to improve the photodegradation of VOC.


Heterogeneous photocatalysis VOC degradation Cyclohexane Toluene Ozone TiO2/UV 


  1. Alansi AM, al-Qunaibit M, Alade IO, Qahtan TF, Saleh TA (2018) Visible-light responsive BiOBr nanoparticles loaded on reduced graphene oxide for photocatalytic degradation of dye. J Mol Liq 253:297–304. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberici RM (1996) Destruction of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase by heterogenious photocatalysis. Doctorate, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  3. Alberici RM, Jardim WF (1997) Photocatalytic destruction of VOCs in the gas-phase using titanium dioxide. Appl Catal B Environ 14:55–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Assalin MR, Silva P (2006) Comparison of the efficiency of ozonation and catalytic ozonation (Mn II and Cu II) in phenol degradation. Quím Nova 29(1):24–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Derwent R (1995) Issues in environmental science & technology. The RSC, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  6. Fujimoto TM, Ponczek M, Rochetto UL, Landers R, Tomaz E (2017) Photocatalytic oxidation of selected gas-phase VOCs using UV light, TiO2 and TiO2/Pd. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:6390–6396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hewer TLR (2006) Synthesis and surface modification of TiO2 to increase efficiency of the heterogeneous photocatalysis process in the treatment of phenolic compounds. Dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang H, Li W (2011) Destruction of toluene by ozone-enhanced photocatalysis: performance and mechanism. Appl Catal B Environ 102:449–453. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huang H, Huang H, Zhang L, Hu P, Ye X, Leung DYC (2015) Enhanced degradation of gaseous benzene under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation over TiO2 modified by transition metals. Chem Eng J 259:534–541. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huang H, Lu H, Zhan Y, Liu G, Feng Q, Huang H, Wu M, Ye X (2017) VUV photo-oxidation of gaseous benzene combined with ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation: effect on transition metal catalyst. Appl Surf Sci 391:662–667. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim J, Zhang P, Li J, Wang J, Fu P (2014) Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene and ozone under UV254+185 nm irradiation using a Pd-deposited TiO2 film. Chem Eng J 252:337–345. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kunz A, Freire RS, Rohwedder JJR, Duran N, Mansilla H, Rodriguez J (1999) Construção e otimização de um sistema para produção e aplicação de ozônio em escala de laboratório. Quím Nova 22(3):425–428. (in Portuguese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mahmoud A, Freire RS (2007) New methods for enhancing ozone efficiency on contaminated water treatment. Quím Nova 30(1):198–205 (in Portuguese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mioduska J, Zielińska-Jurek A, Hupka J (2017) Photocatalytical degradation of toluene and cyclohexane using LED illumination. Pol J Environ Stud 26(3):1159–1164. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nogueira RFP, Jardim WF (1998) Heterogeneous photocatalysis and its environmental applications. Quím Nova 21(1):69–72 (in Portuguese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pengyi Z, Fuyan L, Gang Y, Qing C, Wanpeng Z (2003) A comparative study on decomposition of gaseous toluene by O3/UV, TiO2/UV and O3/TiO2/UV. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 156:189–194. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rochetto UL, Tomaz E (2015) Degradation of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase by heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide/ultraviolet light. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 65(7):810–817. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Saleh TA (2017) Advanced nanomaterials for water engineering, treatment, and hydraulics. Scopus, Saudi Arabia. ISBN13: 9781522521365.
  19. Saleh and Gupta (2016) Nanomaterial and polymer membranes: synthesis, characterization, and applications, 1st edition, Elsevier ISBN-13: 978-0128047033Google Scholar
  20. Sani HA, Ahmad MB, Hussein MZ, Ibrahim NA, Musa A, Saleh TA (2017) Nanocomposite of ZnO with montmorillonite for removal of lead and copper ions from aqueous solutions. Process Saf Environ Prot 109:97–105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shen YS, Ku Y (2002) Decomposition of gas-phase trichloroethene by the UV/TiO2 process in the presence of ozone. Chemosphere 46:101–107. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Silveira AEC (2017) Analysis of the influence of the palladium content on TiO2 matrix for the degradation of volatile organic compounds. Dissertation, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  23. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2017) Volatile organic compound emissions. Accessed 18 August 2017
  24. Vorontsov AV (2016) Photocatalysis: applications, the Royal Society of Chemistry Energy and Environment Series, 15, UKGoogle Scholar
  25. Zhong JB, Lu Y, Jiang WD, Meng QM, He XY, Li JZ, Chen YQ (2009) Characterization and photocatalytic property of Pd/TiO2 with the oxidation of gaseous benzene. J Hazard Mater 168:1632–1635. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luís Antonio Marchiori
    • 1
    Email author
  • Úrsula Luana Rochetto Doubek
    • 1
  • Bárbara Maria Borges Ribeiro
    • 1
  • Tânia Miyoko Fujimoto
    • 1
  • Edson Tomaz
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Chemical EngineeringUNICAMP - University of CampinasCampinasBrazil

Personalised recommendations