An exploratory study of energy reserves and biometry as potential tools for assessing the effects of pest management strategies on the earwig, Forficula auricularia L
Apple orchards are heavily treated crops and some sprayed insecticides are recognized to have toxic effects on non-target arthropods. Earwigs are important natural enemies in pip-fruit orchards and contribute to the biological control of aphids. In addition, due to their ease of capture and identification, they are an interesting potential bioindicator of the possible detrimental effects of different orchard management strategies. In this study, we measured the energy reserves and some morphological traits of Forficula auricularia L. sampled in apple orchards under management strategies (organic versus integrated pest management (IPM)). We observed a significant decrease in mass (22 to 27%), inter-eye width (3%), and prothorax width (2 to 5%) in earwigs from IPM compared to organic orchards. Energy body reserves also confirmed these results with a significant decrease of 48% in glycogen and 25 to 42% in lipid content in earwigs from IPM compared to organic orchards. However, the protein content was approximately 70% higher in earwigs from IPM than in organic orchards. Earwigs sampled in IPM orchards may adapt to minimize the adverse toxic effects of pesticide treatments using a large number of strategies, which are reflected in changes to their energy reserves. These strategies could, in turn, influence the population dynamics of natural enemies and impair their role in the biological control of pests in apple orchards.
KeywordsEarwig Energy reserves Glycogen Lipid Protein Biometry Pest management strategy
We thank Alain Tonetto (Pratim, Aix Marseille University) for assistance in taking the electronic microscopy photos.
We are grateful to the Rovaltain Fundation for its financial support of the I-ResPect project.
- Calow P (1991) Physiological costs of combating chemical toxicants: ecological implications. Comp Biochem Physiol 100(1/2):3–6Google Scholar
- Da Silva JDJ, Mendes J, Lomonaco C (2004) Developmental stress by diflubenzuron in Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Neotrop Entomol 33(2):249–253Google Scholar
- Frings CS, Fendley TW, Dunn RT, Queen CA (1972) Improved determination of total serum lipids by the sulfo-phospho-vanillin reaction. Clin Chem 18(7):673–674Google Scholar
- Gill HK, Garg H (2014) Pesticides: environmental impacts and management strategies. Pesticides – Toxic Aspects pp:187–230Google Scholar
- Habes D, Messiad R, Gousmia S, Grib L (2013) Effects of an inorganic insecticide (boric acid) against Blattella germanica: morphometric measurements and biochemical composition of ovaries. Afr J Biotech 12(18):2492–2497Google Scholar
- Jørgensen LN (1999) Denmark’s action plans for pesticides: status and role of research. Nordisk Jordbrugsforskning 81:201–202Google Scholar
- Jouni F, Sanchez-Hernandez JC, Mazzia C, Jobin M, Capowiez Y, Rault M (2018) Interspecific differences in biochemical and behavioral biomarkers in endogenic earthworms exposed to ethyl-parathion. Chemosphere 85–93Google Scholar
- Markow TN (1995) Evolutionary ecology and developmental instability. Annu Rev Entomol 40:105–120Google Scholar
- Sauphanor B, Stäubli A (1994) Evaluation au champ des effets secondaires des pesticides sur Forficula auricularia et Anthocoris nemoralis: validation des résultats de laboratoire. In: Vogt H (ed) OILB–SROP Section Régionale Ouest Paléarctique, Pesticides and beneficial organisms, vol. 17. Bulletin OILB/SROP, pp 83–88Google Scholar
- Sauphanor B, Dirwimmer C, Boutin S, Chaussabel AL, Dupont N, Fauriel J, Gallia V, Lambert N, Navarro E, Parisi L, Plenet D, Ricaud V, Sagnes JL, Sauvaitre D, Simon S, Speich P, Zavagli F (2009) Comparative analysis of different systems in fruit tree farming. In: INRA (Ed.), Ecophyto R&D: towards crop management systems that save crop protection products, expert report, volume IV, National Institute of agronomic researchGoogle Scholar
- Shaw PW, Wallis DR (2010) Susceptibility of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, to insecticides residues on apple leaves. New Zeland Plant Prot 63:55–59Google Scholar
- Tilton FA, Bammler TK, Gallagher EP (2011) Swimming impairment and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in zebrafish exposed to copper or chlorpyrifos separately, or as mixtures. Comp Biochem Phys C 153:9–16Google Scholar
- Van Der Horst DJ (2003) Insect adipokinetic hormones: release and integration of flight energy metabolism. Comp Biochem Physiol B136:217–226Google Scholar
- Ziegler R (1991) Changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during starvation in adult Manduca sexta. J Comp Physiol Part B 161:125–131Google Scholar