Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4215–4223 | Cite as

Performance of Bi2O3/TiO2 prepared by sol-gel on p-Cresol degradation under solar and visible light

  • Héctor H. Vigil-Castillo
  • Aracely Hernández-Ramírez
  • Jorge L. Guzmán-Mar
  • Norma A. Ramos-Delgado
  • Minerva Villanueva-RodríguezEmail author
Advanced Oxidation Technologies: State-of-the-Art in Ibero-American Countries


Photocatalytic degradation of p-Cresol was evaluated using the mixed oxide Bi2O3/TiO2 (containing 2 and 20% wt. Bi2O3 referred as TB2 and TB20) and was compared with bare TiO2 under simulated solar radiation. Materials were prepared by the classic sol-gel method. All solids exhibited the anatase phase by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The synthesized materials presented lower crystallite size and Eg value, and also higher surface area as Bi2O3 amount was increased. Bi content was quantified showing near to 70% of theoretical values in TB2 and TB20. Bi2O3 incorporation also was demonstrated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Characterization of mixed oxides suggests a homogeneous distribution of Bi2O3 on TiO2 surface. Photocatalytic tests were carried out using a catalyst loading of 1 g L−1 under simulated solar light and visible light. The incorporation of Bi2O3 in TiO2 improved the photocatalytic properties of the synthesized materials obtaining better results with TB20 than the unmodified TiO2 under both radiation sources.


Mixed oxide catalyst Phenolic compound Heterogeneous photocatalysis Visible light 



H. Vigil wants to thank CONACyT for the granted fellowship.

Funding information

This study was supported by the research fund of PAICyT-UANL IT491-15.


  1. Abdollahi Y, Abdullah AH, Zainal Z, Yusof NA (2012) Photocatalytic degradation of p-cresol by zinc oxide under UV Irradiation. Int J Mol Sci 13(1):302–315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashok Kumar KV, Chandana L, Ghosal P, Subrahmanyam C (2017) Simultaneous photocatalytic degradation of p-Cresol and Cr (VI) by metal oxides supported reduced graphene oxide. Mol Catal.
  3. Ayekoe PY, Robert D, Goné DL (2017) Facile synthesis of TiO2/Bi2O3 heterojunctions for the photocatalytic degradation of water contaminants. Res Rev J Chem 6(2):77–83Google Scholar
  4. Biesinger MC, Lau LWM, Gerson AR, Smart RSC (2010) Resolving surface chemical states in XPS analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides: Sc, Ti, V, Cu and Zn. Appl Surf Sci 257:887–898. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooms TJ, Otieno B, Onyango MS, Ochieng A (2017) Photocatalytic degradation of p-Cresol using TiO2/ZnO hybrid surface capped with polyaniline. J Environ Sci Health A 53(2):99–107. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chakraborty AK, Hossain ME, Rhaman MM, Sobahan KMA (2014) Fabrication of Bi2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites and their applications to the degradation of pollutants in air and water under visible-light. J Environ Sci 26:458–465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Escudero CJ, Iglesias O, Dominguez S, Rivero MJ, Ortiz I (2017) Performance of electrochemical oxidation and photocatalysis in terms of kinetics and energy consumption. New insights into the p-Cresol degradation. J Environ Manage 195:117–124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gómez CM, Del Angel G, Ramos-Ramírez E, Rangel-Vázquez I, González F, Arrieta A, Vázquez-Zavala A, Bonilla-Sánchez A, Sánchez Cantú M (2016) Alumina coating with TiO2 and its effect on catalytic photodegradation of phenol and p-Cresol. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 91:2211–2220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gómez-Cerezo MN, Muñoz-Batista MJ, Tudela D, Fernández-García M, Kubacka A (2014) Composite Bi2O3–TiO2 catalysts for toluene photo-degradation: ultraviolet and visible light performances. Appl Catal B Environ 156–157:307–313. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hernández-Ramírez A, Medina-Ramírez I (2015) Photocatalytic semiconductors: synthesis, characterization, and environmental applications. Springer International, New York CityCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hou J, Yang C, Wang Z, Jiao S, Zhu H (2013) Bi2O3 quantum dots decorated anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets on graphene sheets for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance. App Catal B 129:333–341. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jackman MJ, Thomas AG, Muryn C (2015) Photoelectron spectroscopy study of stoichiometric and reduced Anatase TiO2 (101) surfaces: the effect of subsurface defects on water adsorption at near-ambient pressures. J Phys Chem C 119:13682–13690. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jongprateep O, Puranasamriddhi R, Palomas J (2015) Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide synthesized by sol-gel and solution combustion techniques. Ceram Int 41:S169–S173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khunphonoi R, Grisdanurak N (2016) Mechanism pathway and kinetics of p-Cresol photocatalytic degradation over titania nanorods under UV–visible irradiation. Chem Eng J 296:420–427. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee JH, Lee H, Kang M (2016) Remarkable photoconversion of carbon dioxide into methane using Bi-doped TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by a conventional sol–gel method. Mater Lett 178:316–319. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li D, Zhang Y, Zhou X, Guo S (2013) Fabrication of bidirectionally doped β-Bi2O3/TiO2-NTs with enhanced photocatalysis under visible light irradiation. J Hazard Mater 258-259:42–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li JJ, Cai SC, Xu Z, Chen X, Chen J, Jia HP, Chen J (2017) Solvothermal syntheses of Bi and Zn co-doped TiO2 with enhanced electron-hole separation and efficient photodegradation of gaseous toluene under visible-light. J Hazard Mater 325:261–270. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu Y, Xin F, Wang F, Luo S, Yin X (2010) Synthesis, characterization, and activities of visible light-driven Bi2O3–TiO2 composite photocatalysts. J Alloy Compd 498:179–184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Macías-Tamez R, Villanueva-Rodríguez M, Ramos-Delgado NA, Maya-Treviño L, Hernández-Ramírez A (2017) Comparative study of the photocatalytic degradation of the herbicide 2,4-D using WO3/TiO2 and Fe2O3/TiO2 as catalysts. Water Air Soil Pollut 228(10):379. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Madrakian T, Afkhami A, Esmaeili A (2003) Spectrophotometric determination of bismuth in water samples after preconcentration of its thiourea–bromide ternary complex on activated carbon. Talanta 60:831–838. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Malathy P, Vignesh K, Rajarajan M, Suganthi A (2014) Enhanced photocatalytic performance of transition metal doped Bi2O3 nanoparticles under visible light irradiation. Ceram Int 40:101–107. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Malligavathy M, Iyyapushpam S, Nishanthi ST, Pathinettam Padiyan D (2017) Remarkable catalytic activity of Bi2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites prepared by hydrothermal method for the degradation of methyl orange. J Nanopart Res 19:144. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mendiola-Alvarez SY, Guzmán-Mar JL, Turnes-Palomino G, Maya-Alejandro F (2017) UV and visible activation of Cr(III)-doped TiO2 catalyst prepared by a microwave-assisted sol–gel method during MCPA degradation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:12673–12682. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Morales-Mejía JC, Almanza R, Gutiérrez F (2014) Solar photocatalytic oxidation of hydroxy phenols in a CPC reactor with thick TiO2 films. Energy Procedia 57:597–606. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Peng Y, Yan M, Chen QG, Fan CM, Zhou HY, Xu AW (2014) Novel one-dimensional Bi2O3–Bi2WO6 p–n hierarchical heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic activity. J Mater Chem A 2:8517–8524. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ren C, Qiu W, Zhang H, He Z, Chen Y (2015) Degradation of benzene on TiO2/SiO2/Bi2O3 photocatalysts under UV and visible light. J Mol Catal A Chem 389:215–222. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rochetto UL, Tomaz E (2015) Degradation of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase by heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide/ultraviolet light. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 65(7):810–817. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Solís-Casados DA, Escobar-Alarcón L, Arrieta-Castañeda A, Haro-Poniatowski E (2016) Bismuth-titanium oxide nanopowders prepared by sol-gel method for photocatalytic applications. Mater Chem Phys 172:11–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sood S, Kumar-Mehta S, Sinha ASK, Kumar-Kansai S (2016) Bi2O3/TiO2 heterostructures: synthesis, characterization and their application in solar light mediated photocatalyzed degradation of an antibiotic, ofloxacin. Chem Eng J 290:45–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Soto-Hernandez M, Palma-Tenango M, Garcia-Mateos MR (2017) Phenolic compounds - natural sources, importance and applications. IntechOpen, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. USEPA, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1996) Microwave Assisted Acid Digestion of Siliceous and Organically Based Matrices. EPA Method 3052. Accessed 20 June 2017
  32. USEPA, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2005) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Accessed 26 January 2018
  33. Valadbeigi Y (2018) Comparison of effects of charge delocalization and π-electron delocalization on the stability of monocyclic compounds. J Mol Graph Model 80:104–112. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xenofontos E, Tanase AM, Stoica I, Vyrides I (2016) Newly isolated alkalophilic Advenella species bioaugmented in activated sludge for high p-Cresol removal. New Biotechnol 33:305–310. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yang J, Dai J, Li J (2013) Visible-light-induced photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) with coupled Bi2O3/TiO2 photocatalyst and the synergistic bisphenol A oxidation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:2435–2447. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yi W, Yana C, Hamdy MS, Baltrusaitis J, Mul G (2014) Effects of bismuth addition and photo-deposition of platinum on (surface) composition, morphology and visible light photocatalytic activity of sol–gel derived TiO2. Appl Catal B Environ 154-155:153–160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zou H, Song M, Yi F, Bian L, Liu P, Zhang S (2016) Simulated-sunlight-activated photocatalysis of Methyl Orange using carbon and lanthanum co-doped Bi2O3-TiO2 composite. J Alloys Compd 680:54–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasSan Nicolás de los GarzaMexico
  2. 2.CONACyT-Instituto Tecnológico de Nuevo León, Centro de Investigación e Innovación TecnológicaApodacaMexico

Personalised recommendations