Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 36, pp 35855–35865 | Cite as

Accelerated carbonation of wood combustion ash for CO2 removal from gaseous streams and storage in solid form

  • Lidia LombardiEmail author
  • Giulia Costa
  • Riccardo Spagnuolo
Sustainable Waste Management


In this work, ash generated by the combustion of wood in a central heating plant was used to remove and permanently store by accelerated carbonation CO2 contained in a gas mixture simulating biogas. The process was studied as an alternative treatment to the ones currently available on the market for biogas upgrading. The process was investigated at laboratory scale by setting up a facility for directly contacting the wood ash and the synthetic biogas in a fixed bed reactor. The process was able to completely remove CO2 during its initial phase. After about 30 h, CO2 started to appear again in the outlet stream and its concentration rapidly increased. The specific CO2 uptake achieved in solid carbonate form was of about 200 g/kg of dry wood ash. This value is an order of magnitude higher than the ones found for waste incineration bottom ash carrying out similar experiments. The difference was ascribed to the physicochemical properties of the ash, characterized by a fine particle size (d50 < 0.2 mm) and high content of reactive phases with CO2 (e.g., Ca hydroxides). The leaching behavior of the wood ash was examined before and after the accelerated carbonation process showing that the release of several elements was lower after the treatment; Ba leaching in particular decreased by over two orders of magnitude. However, the release of the critical elements for the management of this type of residues (especially Cr and sulfates) appeared not to be significantly affected, while V leaching increased.


Biogas Upgrading Carbon dioxide Biomethane Accelerated carbonation Alkaline residues Wood ash Leaching 



Fondazione Edmund Mach in San Michele all’Adige (TN), Italy, is fully acknowledged for supplying the wood ash.


  1. Andersson J, Nordberg A (2017) Biogas upgrading using ash from combustion of wood fuels: laboratory experiments. Energy Environ Res 7:38–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baciocchi R, Costa G, Di Bartolomeo E, Polettini A, Pomi R (2009) The effects of accelerated carbonation on CO2 uptake and metal release from incineration APC residues. Waste Manag 29:2994–3003. ISSN: 0956-053XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baciocchi R, Costa G, Zingaretti D (2014) Accelerated carbonation processes for carbon dioxide capture, storage and utilisation. In: Bhanage BM, Arai M (eds) Transformation and utilization of carbon dioxide. Green Chemistry and Sustainable Technology, pp. 263–302, Springer, ISBN: 978-3-642-44988-8, ISSN: 2196-6982Google Scholar
  4. Baciocchi R, Costa G, Polettini A, Pomi R (2015) Effects of thin-film accelerated carbonation on steel slag leaching. J Hazard Mater 286:369–378. ISSN: 0304-3894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Browne J, Nizami A-S, Thamsiriroj T, Murphy JD (2011) Assessing the cost of biofuel production with increasing penetration of the transport fuel market: a case study of gaseous biomethane in Ireland. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15:4537–4547. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cruz NC, Rodrigues SM, Carvalho L, Duarte AC, Pereira E, Römkens PFAM, Tarelho LAC (2017) Ashes from fluidized bed combustion of residual forest biomass: recycling to soil as a viable management option. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:14770–14781. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. del Valle-Zermeño R, Romero-Güiza MS, Chimenos JM, Formosa J, Mata-Alvarez J, Astals S (2015) Biogas upgrading using MSWI bottom ash: an integrated municipal solid waste management. Renew Energy 80:184–189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Di Gianfilippo M, Costa G, Pantini S, Allegrini E, Lombardi F, Astrup TF (2016) LCA of management strategies for RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash based on experimental leaching data. Waste Manag 47B:285–298. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fernandez-Delgado Juarez M, Mostbauer P, Knapp A, Muller S, Tertsch A, Insam H (2018) Biogas purification with biomass ash. Waste Manag 71:224–232. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lackner KS, Wendt CH, Butt DP, Joyce EL Jr, Sharp DH (1995) Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals. Energy 20:1153–1170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lombardi L, Carnevale E (2016a) Analysis of an innovative process for landfill gas quality improvement. Energy 109:1107–1117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lombardi L, Carnevale E (2016b) Bottom ash treatment at the site of producing plant for reutilization. Waste Biomass Valoriz 7:965–974. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lombardi L, Carnevale E, Baciocchi R, Costa G (2015) Biogas upgrading by a combination of innovative treatments based on carbonation of waste incineration residues. Waste Biomass Valoriz 6:791–803. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lombardi L, Carnevale EA, Pecorini I (2016) Experimental evaluation of two different types of reactors for CO2 removal from gaseous stream by bottom ash accelerated carbonation. Waste Manag 58:287–298. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Makaruk A, Miltner M, Harasek M (2010) Membrane biogas upgrading processes for the production of natural gas substitute. Sep Purif Technol 74:83–92. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maresca A, Hyks J, Astrup TF (2017) Recirculation of biomass ashes onto forest soils: ash composition, mineralogy and leaching properties. Waste Manag.
  17. Mostbauer P, Lenz S, Lechner P (2008) MSWI bottom ash for upgrading of biogas and landfill gas. Environ Technol 29:757–764. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mostbauer P, Lombardi L, Olivieri T, Lenz S (2014) Pilot scale evaluation of the BABIU process—upgrading of landfill gas or biogas with the use of MSWI bottom ash. Waste Manag 34:125–133. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nilsson M, Andreas L, Lagerkvist A (2016) Effect of accelerated carbonation and zero valent iron on metal leaching from bottom ash. Waste Manag 51:97–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pantini S, Verginelli I, Lombardi F, Scheutz C, Kjeldsen P (2015) Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions. Waste Manag 43:37–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Patterson T, Esteves S, Dinsdale R, Guwy A (2011) An evaluation of the policy and techno-economic factors affecting the potential for biogas upgrading for transport fuel use in the UK. Energy Policy 39:1806–1816. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Peres Ribeiro J, Domingos Vicente E, Alves C, Querol X, Amato F, Tarelho LAC (2017) Characteristics of ash and particle emissions during bubbling fluidised bed combustion of three types of residual forest biomass. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:10018–10029. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rasi S, Läntelä J, Rintala J (2014) Upgrading landfill gas using a high pressure water absorption process. Fuel 115:539–543. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ryckebosch E, Drouillon M, Vervaeren H (2011) Techniques for transformation of biogas to biomethane. Biomass Bioenergy 35:1633–1645. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Trivedi NS, Mandavgane SA, Mehetre S, Kulkarni BD (2016) Characterization and valorization of biomass ashes. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:20243. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. van Zomeren A, van der Laan SR, Kobesen HBA, Huijgen WJ, Comans RN (2011) Changes in mineralogical and leaching properties of converter steel slag resulting from accelerated carbonation at low CO2 pressure. Waste Manag 31:2236–2244. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yang L, Ge X, Wan C, Yu F, Li Y (2014) Progress and perspectives in converting biogas to transportation fuels. Renew Sust Energ Rev 40:1133–1152. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yuen YT, Sharratt PN, Jie B (2016) Carbon dioxide mineralization process design and evaluation: concepts, case studies, and considerations. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:22309–22330. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lidia Lombardi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Giulia Costa
    • 2
  • Riccardo Spagnuolo
    • 2
  1. 1.Niccolò Cusano UniversityRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science EngineeringUniversity of Roma Tor VergataRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations