Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4242–4252 | Cite as

A comparison between the four Geldart groups on the performance of a gas-phase annular fluidized bed photoreactor for volatile organic compound oxidation

  • Leonardo Almeida DinizEmail author
  • Thiago Lewis Reis Hewer
  • Danielle Matsumoto
  • Antonio Carlos Silva Costa Teixeira
Advanced Oxidation Technologies: State-of-the-Art in Ibero-American Countries


Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a widely studied alternative for the elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. In this context, research on novel photoreactor arrangements to enhance PCO rates is desired. Annular fluidized bed photoreactors (AFBPR) have yielded prominent results when compared to conventional thin film reactors. However, very few works aimed at optimizing AFBPR operation. In this study, TiO2 photocalytic agglomerates were synthesized and segregated in specific size distributions to behave as Geldart groups A, B, C, and D fluidization. The TiO2 agglomerates were characterized by XRD, FTIR spectra, and N2 adsorption. Photocatalyst performances were compared in a 10-mm gapped AFBPR for degrading the model pollutant methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK), using a 254-nm radiation source. Geldart group C showed to be inadequate for AFBPR operation due to the short operation range between fluidization and elutriation. In all the cases, photocatalytic reaction rates were superior to sole UV photolysis. Group A and group B demonstrated the highest reaction rates. Considerations based on mass transfer suggested that the reasons were enhanced UV distribution within the bed at lower flow rates and superior catalyst surface area at higher flow rates. Results also revealed that groups A, B, and D perform equally per catalyst area within an AFBPR if the fluidization numbers (FN) are high enough.


Air treatment Photocatalysis VOC Fluidized bed Geldart group Methyl-ethyl-ketone 



The authors express their gratitude to the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (CAPES, Brazil), the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, Brazil), and the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP, grant PIPE no 2016/00953-6) for the financial support. We are also grateful to Prof. Sergio Brochsztain from the Federal University of ABC for his help with the BET analysis.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_2145_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (237 kb)
Figure S1 (PDF 236 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonardo Almeida Diniz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thiago Lewis Reis Hewer
    • 2
  • Danielle Matsumoto
    • 1
  • Antonio Carlos Silva Costa Teixeira
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Group in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AdOx), Chemical Systems Engineering Center, Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Chemical Systems Engineering Center (CESQ), Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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