Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4324–4336 | Cite as

Degradation of carbendazim in water via photo-Fenton in Raceway Pond Reactor: assessment of acute toxicity and transformation products

  • Elizângela Pinheiro da Costa
  • Sue Ellen C. Bottrel
  • Maria Clara V. M. Starling
  • Mônica M. D. Leão
  • Camila Costa AmorimEmail author
Advanced Oxidation Technologies: State-of-the-Art in Ibero-American Countries


This study aimed at investigating the degradation of fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) via photo-Fenton reactions in artificially and solar irradiated photoreactors at laboratory scale and in a semi-pilot scale Raceway Pond Reactor (RPR), respectively. Acute toxicity was monitored by assessing the sensibility of bioluminescent bacteria (Aliivibrio fischeri) to samples taken during reactions. In addition, by-products formed during solar photo-Fenton were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS). For tests performed in lab-scale, two artificial irradiation sources were compared (UVλ > 254nm and UV-Visλ > 320nm). A complete design of experiments was performed in the semi-pilot scale RPR in order to optimize reaction conditions (Fe2+ and H2O2 concentrations, and water depth). Efficient degradation of carbendazim (> 96%) and toxicity removal were achieved via artificially irradiated photo-Fenton under both irradiation sources. Control experiments (UV photolysis and UV-Vis peroxidation) were also efficient but led to increased acute toxicity. In addition, H2O2/UVλ > 254nm required longer reaction time (60 minutes) when compared to the photo-Fenton process (less than 1 min). While Fenton’s reagent achieved high CBZ and acute toxicity removal, its efficiency demands higher concentration of reagents in comparison to irradiated processes. Solar photo-Fenton removed carbendazim within 15 min of reaction (96%, 0.75 kJ L−1), and monocarbomethoxyguanidine, benzimidazole isocyanate, and 2-aminobenzimidazole were identified as transformation products. Results suggest that both solar photo-Fenton and artificially irradiated systems are promising routes for carbendazim degradation.


Pesticide removal Micropollutant removal AOP UV light Sunlight RPR Pilot reactor 

Supplementary material

11356_2018_2130_MOESM1_ESM.docx (176 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 175 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizângela Pinheiro da Costa
    • 1
  • Sue Ellen C. Bottrel
    • 2
  • Maria Clara V. M. Starling
    • 1
  • Mônica M. D. Leão
    • 1
  • Camila Costa Amorim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departament of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Research Group on Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation ProcessesUniversidade Federal de Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Departament of Sanitary and Environmental EngineeringUniversidade Federal de Juiz de ForaJuiz de ForaBrazil

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