Effects of different vermicompost extracts of palm oil mill effluent and palm-pressed fiber mixture on seed germination of mung bean and its relative toxicity
- 197 Downloads
Several treatment technologies are available for the treatment of palm oil mill wastes. Vermicomposting is widely recognized as efficient, eco-friendly methods for converting organic waste materials to valuable products. This study evaluates the effect of different vermicompost extracts obtained from palm oil mill effluent (POME) and palm-pressed fiber (PPF) mixtures on the germination, growth, relative toxicity, and photosynthetic pigments of mung beans (Vigna radiata) plant. POME contains valuable nutrients and can be used as a liquid fertilizer for fertigation. Mung bean seeds were sown in petri dishes irrigated with different dilutions of vermicomposted POME-PPF extracts, namely 50, 60, and 70% at varying dilutions. Results showed that at lower dilutions, the vermicompost extracts showed favorable effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and total chlorophyll content in mung bean seedlings, but at higher dilutions, they showed inhibitory effects. The carotenoid contents also decreased with increased dilutions of POME-PPF. This study recommends that the extracts could serve as a good source of fertilizer for the germination and growth enhancement of mung bean seedlings at the recommended dilutions.
KeywordsPalm oil mill effluent Seed germination Mung bean Total chlorophyll Relative toxicity
The authors acknowledge University Sains Malaysia (USM) for providing research facilities. The authors also acknowledge the Research University Grant from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Q.J130000.2546.14H65).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Arancon NQ, Edwards CA, Babenko A, Cannon J, Galvis P, Metzger JD (2008) Influences of vermicomposts, produced by earthworms and microorganisms from cattle manure, food waste and paper waste, on the germination, growth and flowering of petunias in the greenhouse. Appl Soil Ecol 39:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Edwards CA, Arancon NQ, Greytak S (2006) Effects of vermicompost teas on plant growth and disease. Biocycle 47:28Google Scholar
- Ghavri SV, Singh RP (2010) Phytotranslocation of Fe by biodiesel plant Jatropha curcas L. grown on iron rich wasteland soil. J Plant Physiol 22:235–243Google Scholar
- Ingham C (2005) Device for sensing of motile living organisms and uses thereof. Google PatentsGoogle Scholar
- Jadia CD, Fulekar M (2008) Phytotoxicity and remediation of heavy metals by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in soil-vermicompost media. AdvNat Appl Sci 2:141–152Google Scholar
- Lung I, Soran L, Stan M, Bele C, Matea C (2013) Evaluation of Total chlorophyll content in microwave-irradiated Ocimum basilicum L. Sci Bull ESCORENA 8:31–35Google Scholar
- Mohamed HI, Akladious SA (2014) Influence of garlic extract on enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants in soybean plants (Glycine max) grown under drought stress. Life Sci J 11:46Google Scholar
- Quaik S, Embrandiri A, Rupani PF, Singh RP, Ibrahim MH (2012) Effect of vermiwash and vermicomposting leachate in hydroponics culture of Indian Borage (Plectranthus ambionicus) plantlets. In UMT 11th International Annual Symposium on Sustainability Science and Management (pp. 210–214)Google Scholar
- Rupani PF, Singh RP, Ibrahim MH, Esa N (2010) Review of current palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment methods: vermicomposting as a sustainable practice. World Appl Sci J 10:1190–1201Google Scholar
- Singh RP, Embrandiri A, Hakimi Ibrahim M, Singh P (2013) Effect of different palm oil mill effluent (POME) concentrations on seed germination, seedling growth and physiological response of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). J Environ Sci Sustain 1:97–102Google Scholar
- Subramani A, Saravanan S, Sundaramoorthy P, Lakshmanachary A (1998) Impact of fertilizer factory effluent on the Morphometrical and biochemical changes of cowpea (Vigna ungiculata (L.) Walp). Adv Plant Sci 11:137–142Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (2013) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 916. World Health Organi- zation, GenevaGoogle Scholar