Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 36, pp 35805–35810 | Cite as

Effects of different vermicompost extracts of palm oil mill effluent and palm-pressed fiber mixture on seed germination of mung bean and its relative toxicity

  • Parveen Fatemeh RupaniEmail author
  • Asha Embrandiri
  • Mahamad Hakimi Ibrahim
  • Vikram Ghole
  • Chew Tin LeeEmail author
  • Madjid Abbaspour
Sustainable Waste Management


Several treatment technologies are available for the treatment of palm oil mill wastes. Vermicomposting is widely recognized as efficient, eco-friendly methods for converting organic waste materials to valuable products. This study evaluates the effect of different vermicompost extracts obtained from palm oil mill effluent (POME) and palm-pressed fiber (PPF) mixtures on the germination, growth, relative toxicity, and photosynthetic pigments of mung beans (Vigna radiata) plant. POME contains valuable nutrients and can be used as a liquid fertilizer for fertigation. Mung bean seeds were sown in petri dishes irrigated with different dilutions of vermicomposted POME-PPF extracts, namely 50, 60, and 70% at varying dilutions. Results showed that at lower dilutions, the vermicompost extracts showed favorable effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and total chlorophyll content in mung bean seedlings, but at higher dilutions, they showed inhibitory effects. The carotenoid contents also decreased with increased dilutions of POME-PPF. This study recommends that the extracts could serve as a good source of fertilizer for the germination and growth enhancement of mung bean seedlings at the recommended dilutions.


Palm oil mill effluent Seed germination Mung bean Total chlorophyll Relative toxicity 



The authors acknowledge University Sains Malaysia (USM) for providing research facilities. The authors also acknowledge the Research University Grant from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Q.J130000.2546.14H65).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Environment and EnergyScience and Research Branch, Islamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental StudiesKannur UniversityKannurIndia
  3. 3.School of Industrial TechnologyUniversity Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  4. 4.Academic CellNational Institute of VirologyPuneIndia
  5. 5.Department of Chemical and Energy EngineeringUniversity Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia

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