Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 17, pp 16776–16787 | Cite as

Does the application of silicon and Moringa seed extract reduce heavy metals toxicity in potato tubers treated with phosphate fertilizers?

  • Ahmed S. Elrys
  • Abdel-Rahman M. A. Merwad
  • Ahmed I. E. Abdo
  • Mohamed K. Abdel-Fatah
  • El-Sayed M. Desoky
Research Article


Two field trials were carried out in two successive agricultural seasons to study the possibility of using silicon (Si) and Moringa seed extract (MSE) for reducing heavy metal contamination resulting from phosphate fertilizers addition to potato tubers. A randomized complete block design experiment was performed using three replicates. Various sources of phosphate fertilizers as ordinary super phosphate and rock phosphate were added at rate of 100 kg P ha−1 prior sowing. Silicon was added as potassium silicate (20% SiO2) at rate of 6 L ha−1, and MSE was also added at rate of 150 L ha−1 in three equal doses with the 2nd, 4th, and 6th irrigations during the last 10 min of drip irrigation. Results indicated that the addition of phosphate fertilizers increased fresh tuber yield, dry weight yield, NPK uptake, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase of potato either alone or combined with silicon and MSE. The accumulation rate of Cu, Cd, and Ni in potato was higher with the single addition of rock phosphate fertilizer compared with single addition of super phosphate fertilizer. The highest reduction (P < 0.05) in heavy metal accumulation in potato leaves and tubers as well as soil was found with MSE treatment plus super phosphate fertilizer. It is recommended to add MSE at a rate of 150 L ha−1 along with fertilizing the potato crop with ordinary super phosphate fertilizer.


Pollution Phosphorus Moringa seed extract Silicon Heavy metals Potato 


  1. Abbasi A, Zabihi-e-Mahmoodabad R, Jamaati-e-Somarin S (2011) Study of nitrogen fertilizer effect on agronomic nitrogen use efficiency, yield and nitrate accumulation in potato tubers cultivars in Ardabil Region (Iran). Adv Environ Biol 5(4):566–572Google Scholar
  2. Abirami M, Rohini C (2017) Comparative study on the treatment of turbid water using Moringa oleifera and Alum as coagulants. International Conference on Emerging trends in Engineering, Science and Sustainable Technology. E-ISSN: 2348–8352. 41–48
  3. Afzal I, Hussain B, Basra SMA, Rehman H (2012) Priming with MLE reduces imbibition chilling injury in spring maize. Seed Sci Technol 40(2):271–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aihou K, Sanginga N, Vanlauwe B, Diels J, Merckx R, et al. (2006) Influence of rock phosphate on growth and biomass production of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) Millsp. in different farmers’ fields and its residual effect on maize in the derived savanna of Bénin. Bulletin de la Recherché Agronomique du Bénin N° 51Google Scholar
  5. Allaway WH (1968) Agronomic controls over the environmental cycling of trace elements. Adv Agron 20:235–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alloway BJ (1990) Toxic metals in soil-plant systems. John Wiley and Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  7. Alscher PG, Erturk N, Heath LS (2002) Role of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in controlling oxidative stress in plant. J Exp Bot 53:1331–1341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. AOAC (1984) Official method of analysis. 14th ed. In: S. Williams (ed) pp 844–846Google Scholar
  9. Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism oxidative stress and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Basra HM, Ali Z, Mahmood A, Yousaf S (2011) Mitigation of drought stress in maize by natural and synthetic growth promoters. J Agric Soc Sci 7:56–62Google Scholar
  11. Bhaduri AM, Fulekar MH (2012) Antioxidant enzyme responses of plants to heavy metal stress. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 11:55–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bharwana SA, Ali S, Farooq MA, Iqbal N, Abbas F, Ahmad MSA (2013) Alleviation of lead toxicity by silicon is related to elevated photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes suppressed lead uptake and oxidative stress in cotton. J Bioremed Biodegr 4:187–198Google Scholar
  13. Black CA (1968) Soil plant relationships. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 14th ed, Published by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, PO Box, 540, Benjamin Franklin Station, Washing Mg, dc. 20044Google Scholar
  14. Brahim S, Niess A, Pflipsen M, Neuhof D, Scherer H (2017) Effect of combined fertilization with rock phosphate and elemental sulphur on yield and nutrient uptake of soybean. Plant Soil Environ 63(2):89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bugarčić Ž, Bugarčić RA, Đekić R, Ivan J (2000) A study of yields of Duch potato varieties in different agro-ecological conditions in Serbia. J Sci Agric Res 61(215):143–150Google Scholar
  16. Chance B, Maehly AC (1955) Assay of catalase and peroxidase. Methods Enzymol 2:764–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chapman HD, Pratt FP (1982) Determination of minerals by titration method: methods of analysis for soils, plants and water. 2nd ed, Agriculture Division, California University, USA, pp 169–170Google Scholar
  18. Chen HM, Zheng CR, Tu C, Shen ZG (2000) Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals. Chemosphere 41:229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cunha KPV, Nascimento CWA (2009) Silicon effects on metal tolerance and structural changes in maize (Zea mays L.) gown on a cadmium and zinc enriched soil. Water Air Soil Pollut 197:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dixit V, Pandey V, Shyam R (2001) Differential antioxidative responses to cadmium in roots and leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Azad). J Exp Bot 52:1101–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Do Nascimento CWA, Xing B (2006) Phytoextraction: a review on enhanced metal availability and plant accumulation. Sci Agric (3):299–311Google Scholar
  22. El Sohaimy SA, Hamad GM, Mohamed SE, Amar MH, Al-Hindi RR (2015) Biochemical and functional properties of Moringa oleifera leaves and their potential as a functional food. Glob Adv Res J Agric Sci 4:188–199Google Scholar
  23. El-Etr WT, Osman MA, Mahmoud AA (2011) Improving phosphorus use efficiency and its effect on the productivity of some crops. J Soil Sci Agric Eng Mansoura Univ 2(9):1019–1034Google Scholar
  24. Ellen G, Loon JW, Tolsma K (1990) Heavy metals in vegetables grown in the Netherlands and in domestic and imported fruits. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 190:34–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elsheikh MA, El-Tilib AMA, Elsheikh EAE, El Karim AHA (2007) Effect of phosphate rock and triple superphosphate on growth and leaf N, P and K contents of groundnut (Arachis ltypogaea L.) grown on a clay soil. Arab Univ J Agric Sci 15:197–202Google Scholar
  26. Foidl N, Makkar HPS, Becker K (2001) The potential of Moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop What development potential for Moringa products?, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, pp 47–67Google Scholar
  27. Fridovich I (1975) Superoxide dismutase. Annu Rev Biochem 44:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ghffar R, Arbabian S, Tajadod GAM, Salimpour F (2014) The study of sodium silicate effects on the total protein content, and the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase of Vicia faba l. Bull Environ Pharmacol Life Sci 3:243–236Google Scholar
  29. Gu H, Qui H, Tian T et al (2011) Mitigation effects of silicon rich amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on multi-metal contaminated acidic soil. Chemosphere 83:1234–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guntzer F, Keller G, Meunier J (2012) Benefits of plant silicon for crops: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 32:201–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta DK, Nicoloso FT, Schetinger MR, Rossato LV, Pereira LB et al (2009) Antioxidant defense mechanism in hydroponically grown Zea mays seedlings under moderate lead stress. J Hazard Mater 172:479–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Howladar SM (2014) Novel Moringa oleifera leaf extract can mitigate the stress effects of salinity and cadmium in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 100:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ijarotimi OS, Adeoti OA, Ariyo O (2013) Comparative study on nutrient composition, phytochemical, and functional characteristics of raw, germinated, and fermented Moringa oleifera seed flour. Food Sci Nutr 1(6):452–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jackson ML (1973) Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Ic., Englewood Califfs, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  35. James A, Zikankuba V (2017) Moringa oleifera a potential tree for nutrition security in sub-Sahara Africa. Am J Res Commun 5(4):1–14, ISSN: 2325-4076Google Scholar
  36. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 114Google Scholar
  37. Kardam A, Raj KR, Arora KJ, Srivastava MM, Srivastava S (2010) Artificial neural network modeling for sorption of cadmium from aqueous system by shelled Moringa oleifera seed powder as an agricultural waste. J Water Res Prot 2:339–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaya C, Tuna AL, Sonmez O, Ince F, Higgs D (2009) Mitigation effects of silicon on maize plants grown at high zinc. J Plant Nutr 32:1788–1798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kiani Z, Abdolzadeh A, Sadeghipour H (2012) Assessment of silica treatment on shortage of iron in Rice. Iranian Biol Mag 4:61–71Google Scholar
  40. Li P, Wang X, Zhang T, Zhou D, He Y (2008) Effects of several amendments on rice growth and uptake of copper and cadmium from a contaminated soil. J Environ Sci 20:449–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Liang Y, Wong JW, Wei L (2005) Silicon-mediated enhancement of cadmium tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) grown in cadmium contaminated soil. Chemosphere 58:475–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maina IW, Obuseng V, Nareetsile F (2016) Use of Moringa oleifera (Moringa) seed pods and Sclerocarya birrea (Morula) nut shells for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and borehole water. J Chem.
  43. Mortvedt JJ, Beaton JD (1995) Heavy metal and radionuclide contaminants in phosphate fertilizers. In: Tiessen H (ed) Phosphorus in the global environment: transfer, cycles and management. Wiley, New York, pp 93–106Google Scholar
  44. Mukhtar MK, Irfan M, Tahir HM, Khan SY, Ahmad KR, Qadir A, Arshad M (2012) Species composition and population dynamics of spider fauna of trifolium and brassica field. Pak J Zool 44(5):1261–1267Google Scholar
  45. Munda S, Shivakumar BG, Gangaiah B, Manjaiah KM, Rana DS, Layek J, Koneru L (2015) Influence of direct and residual phosphorus fertilization on growth and yield of potato in a soybean-potato cropping system. AJCS 9(3):191–202Google Scholar
  46. Namblar VS, Mehta R, Danlel M (2005) Polyphenol content of three Indian green leafy vegetables. J Food Sci Technol 42:312–315Google Scholar
  47. Narin I, Tuzen M, Sari H, Soylak M (2005) Heavy metal content of potato and corn chips from Turkey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 74:1072–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:249–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Oktem F, Yavrucuoglu H, Turedi A, Tunc B (2005) The effect of nutritional habits on hematological parameters and trace elements in children. Suleyman Demirel Univ Tip Fak Der 12:6–10 (In Turkısh)Google Scholar
  50. Olsen SR, Cole FS, Dean LA (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. US Dept Agric Cir 939:1–9Google Scholar
  51. Oyedele DJ, Asonugho C, Awotoye OO (2006) Heavy metals in soil and accumulation by edible vegetables after phosphate fertilizer application. Electron J Environ Agric Food Chem 5(4):1446–1453Google Scholar
  52. Pagnanelli F, Mainelli S, Veglio F, Toro L (2003) Heavy metal removal by olive pomace: biosorbent characterization and equilibrium modeling. Chem Eng Sci 58:4709–4717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Piper CS (1951) Soil and plant analysis. Interscience Publishers Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. PSE (Production Systems and the Environment) (2013) International potato center (CIP). Protocol for designing and conducting potato field experiments for modeling purposes. Peru, CIP Lima, p 16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rady MM, Varma B, Howladar SM (2013) Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedling overcome NaCl stress as a result of presoaking in Moringa oleifera leaf extract. Sci Hortic 162:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ragab ME, Soliman MM, Rizk FA, Mahmoud SH (2015) Effect of different phosphorus sources on the plant growth, tubers yield and nutritional value of potatoes. Middle East. J Agric Res 4(2):388–394Google Scholar
  57. Reddy DHK, Ramana DKV, Seshaiah K, Reddy AVR (2011) Biosorption of Ni (II) from aqueous phase by Moringa oleifera bark, a low cost biosorbent. Desalination 268:150–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Reddy DHK, Seshaiaha K, Reddyb AVR, Leec SM (2012) Optimization of Cd (II), Cu (II) and Ni (II) biosorption by chemically modified Moringa oleifera leaves powder. Carbohydr Polym 88:1077–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rehman H, Nawaz MQ, Basra SMA, Afzal I, Yasmeen A, Hassan FU (2014) Seed priming influence on early crop growth, phenological development and yield performance of linola (Linum usitatissimum L.) J Integr Agric 13(5):990–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rizwan M, Meunier J, Miche H et al (2012) Effect of silicon on reducing cadmium toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio W.) grown in a soil with aged contamination. J Hazard Mater 209–210:326–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sajidu SM, Henry EMT, Kwamdera G et al (2006) Removal of lead, iron and cadmium ions by means of polyelectrolytes of the Moringa oleifera whole seed kernel. WIT Trans Ecol Environ 80:1–8Google Scholar
  62. Schindler PW, Furst B, Dick R, Wolf PU (1976) Ligand properties of surface silanol groups: I. Surface complex formation with Fe3+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+. J Colloid Interface Sci 55:469–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shan TC, Al Matar M, Makky EA, Ali EN (2017) The use of Moringa oleifera seed as a natural coagulant for wastewater treatment and heavy metals removal. Appl Water Sci 7:1369–1376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shehata SA, El-Helaly MA, El-Said MA (2014) Using natural alternative fertilizers for potato production under sandy soil conditions in Egypt. J Plant Prod Mansoura Univ 5(10):1745–1757Google Scholar
  65. Shi GR, Cai Q, Liu C, Wu L (2010) Silicon alleviates cadmium toxicity in peanut plants in relation to cadmium distribution and stimulation of antioxidative enzymes. Plant Growth Regul 61:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shi Q, Bao Z, Zhu Z, He Y, Qian Q, Yu J (2005) Silicon-mediated alleviation of Mn toxicity in Cucumis sativus in relation to activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase. Phytochemistry 66:1551–1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Smith IK, Vierheller TL, Thorne CA (1988) Assay of glutathione reductase in crude tissue homogenates using 5,5′-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid). Ann Biochem 175:408–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1997) Principles and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach, 2nd edn. McGraw Hill Book Co Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Stewart WM, Johnston A, TS Murrel, Mikkelsen RL (2003) Phosphorus nutrition of wheat optimizes production. Published by The Potash and Potash Institutes (PPI) and Potash Institute of Canada (PPIC(Google Scholar
  70. Thomas EY, Omueti JAI, Ogundayomi O (2012) The effect of phosphate fertilizer on heavy metal in soils and Amaranthus Caudatus. Agric Biol J N Am 3(4):145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Thomas RL, Jen JJ, Morr CV (1981) Changes in soluble and bound peroxidase-IAA oxidase during tomato fruit development. J Food Sci 47:158–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Vitoria AP, Lea PJ, Azevado RA (2001) Antioxidant enzymes responses to cadmium in radish tissues. Phytochemistry 57:701–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Watanabe FS, Olsen SR (1965) Test of ascorbic acid method for determine phosphorus in water and NaHCO3 extracts from soil. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 29:677–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhang CH, Wang L, Nie Q, Zhang W, Zhang F (2008) Long-term effects of exogenous silicon on cadmium translocation and toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Environ Exp Bot 62:300–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed S. Elrys
    • 1
  • Abdel-Rahman M. A. Merwad
    • 1
  • Ahmed I. E. Abdo
    • 1
  • Mohamed K. Abdel-Fatah
    • 1
  • El-Sayed M. Desoky
    • 2
  1. 1.Soil Science Department, Faculty of AgricultureZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Agriculture Botany Department, Faculty of AgricultureZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

Personalised recommendations