Contribution to the understanding of biologic concentrations of arsenic in children living in an urban area from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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There are few studies about children’s environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in Brazil, most of them being in mining regions. The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding of biologic concentrations of arsenic in children living in an urban area, in Brazil. A study of arsenic concentrations in capillary blood (n = 270), nail (n = 261), and urine (n = 99) samples, in male and female children, 8 to 10 years old, from two public schools in Rio de Janeiro, was conducted. Socio-economic and health data were obtained through questionnaires. The nail and capillary blood analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), while urine samples were analyzed using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The median, geometric mean, and 95th percentiles of total arsenic concentrations were, respectively, 2.53, 2.40, and 3.58 μg/L in capillary blood; 0.09, 0.10, and 0.24 μg/g in nails; and 12.50, 10.97, and 39.45 μg/L in urine. The geometric mean of urinary arsenic level was above the values reported by international surveys for non-exposed populations. The arsenic concentrations in nails were compatible with the values found in national studies. These outcomes can contribute to the increase of knowledge on biologic concentrations of arsenic in children living in urban areas, in Brazil.
KeywordsArsenic Children’s health Environmental exposure Biomonitoring
TF is the principal investigator, planned and designed the study, administered questionnaires, and drafted the manuscript; VC is the principal investigator, helped to draft the manuscript; PB helped to carry out analysis of urine samples and measured arsenic concentrations and drafted the manuscript; AM helped to draft the manuscript; CA is the principal investigator, planned and designed the study, and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
All the legal guardians of all children were invited to a meeting at which they were fully informed about the aims of the study and asked whether they would be willing to permit their children to participate. All the legal guardians agreed to the processing of their children’s data and understood that this information was categorized as “sensitive data.” All the legal guardians were informed that data from the research protocol would be treated in an anonymous and collective way, with scientific methods and for scientific purposes in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration. Current research protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Public Health Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (n°: 45/2008; n°: 065905/2013).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Consent ethical forms were signed by the legal guardians of all participants. Current research protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Public Health Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (n°: 45/2008; n°: 065905/2013).
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