Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 14, pp 13731–13744 | Cite as

Assessment of n-pentanol/Calophyllum inophyllum/diesel blends on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a constant-speed variable compression ratio direct injection diesel engine

  • Purnachandran Ramakrishnan
  • Ramesh Kasimani
  • Mohamed Shameer Peer
  • Sakthivel Rajamohan
Research Article


Alcohol is used as an additive for a long time with the petroleum-based fuels. In this study, the higher alcohol, n-pentanol, was used as an additive to Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) biodiesel/diesel blends at 10, 15, and 20% by volume. In all blends, the ratio of CI was maintained at 20% by volume. The engine characteristics of the pentanol fuel blends were compared with the diesel and CI20 (Calophyllum inophyllum 20% and diesel 80%) biodiesel blend. The nitrogen oxide (NO) emission of the pentanol fuel blends showed an increased value than CI20 and neat diesel fuel. The carbon dioxide (CO2) also increased with increase in pentanol addition with the fuel blends than CI20 fuel blend and diesel. The carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were decreased with increase in pentanol proportion in the blend than the CI20 fuel and diesel. The smoke emission was reduced and the combustion characteristics of the engine were also improved by using pentanol blended fuels. From this investigation, it is suggested that 20% pentanol addition with the biodiesel/diesel fuel is suitable for improved performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine without any engine modifications, whereas CO2 and NO emissions increased with addition of pentanol due to effective combustion.


Pentanol Calophyllum inophyllum Performance Emission Combustion Compression ratio 



Calophyllum inophyllum


American Society for Testing and Materials


Direct injection


Million barrels per day


Carbon monoxide


Carbon dioxide


Nitrogen oxide


Oxides of nitrogen






Total hydrocarbon


Variable compression ratio


Neat diesel fuel


Calophyllum inophyllum 20% + diesel 80%


Pentanol 10% + Calophyllum inophyllum 20% + diesel 70%


Pentanol 15% + Calophyllum inophyllum 20% + diesel 65%


Pentanol 20% + Calophyllum inophyllum 20% + diesel 60%


Cetane number


Calorific value


Lower heating value


Common rail direct injection


Brake thermal efficiency


Brake specific fuel consumption


Brake mean effective pressure


Heat release rate


Premixed combustion


Compression ratio


Compression ratio 16:1


Compression ratio 17:1


Compression ratio 18:1


Modular diagnostic system


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Research ScholarGovernment College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.DindigulIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringGovernment College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringVV College of EngineeringTirunelveliIndia

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