Sonochemical degradation of triclosan in water in a multifrequency reactor
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Degradation of triclosan (TCS) by multifrequency ultrasound (US) was studied at high and low frequencies. Frequency effect on initial degradation rates was analyzed, and an optimum frequency was found. Power density always has a positive effect on degradation rates over the whole equipment work range. A reaction mechanism similar to that proposed by Serpone resulted in a pseudo-linear model that fitted statistically better than the nonlinear model proposed by Okitsu. Pulsed US showed a positive effect on degradation rates; however, simultaneous analysis of the effect of power, frequency, pulse time, and silent time did not show a clear trend for degradation as a function of pulse US variables. According to these results and those for degradation in the presence of radical scavengers, it was concluded that US TCS degradation was taking place in the bubble/liquid interface. A toxicity test was conducted by Microtox®, showing a decrease in toxicity as TCS concentration decreased and increase in toxicity after total depletion of TCS. Eight possible degradation by-products were identified by GC-MS analysis, and a degradation pathway was proposed.
KeywordsAdvanced oxidation processes Kinetic models Sonochemistry Triclosan High-frequency ultrasound Triclosan toxicity
The authors wish to thank NSERC, the Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE), and the ELAP program; the Colombian Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS); the University of Saskatchewan; and the University of Antioquia for the support of this work.
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