Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 4450–4461 | Cite as

Sonochemical degradation of triclosan in water in a multifrequency reactor

  • Lina Patricia VegaEmail author
  • Jafar Soltan
  • Gustavo A. Peñuela
Advanced Oxidation Technologies: State-of-the-Art in Ibero-American Countries


Degradation of triclosan (TCS) by multifrequency ultrasound (US) was studied at high and low frequencies. Frequency effect on initial degradation rates was analyzed, and an optimum frequency was found. Power density always has a positive effect on degradation rates over the whole equipment work range. A reaction mechanism similar to that proposed by Serpone resulted in a pseudo-linear model that fitted statistically better than the nonlinear model proposed by Okitsu. Pulsed US showed a positive effect on degradation rates; however, simultaneous analysis of the effect of power, frequency, pulse time, and silent time did not show a clear trend for degradation as a function of pulse US variables. According to these results and those for degradation in the presence of radical scavengers, it was concluded that US TCS degradation was taking place in the bubble/liquid interface. A toxicity test was conducted by Microtox®, showing a decrease in toxicity as TCS concentration decreased and increase in toxicity after total depletion of TCS. Eight possible degradation by-products were identified by GC-MS analysis, and a degradation pathway was proposed.


Advanced oxidation processes Kinetic models Sonochemistry Triclosan High-frequency ultrasound Triclosan toxicity 



The authors wish to thank NSERC, the Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE), and the ELAP program; the Colombian Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS); the University of Saskatchewan; and the University of Antioquia for the support of this work.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1281_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.4 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 2483 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lina Patricia Vega
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jafar Soltan
    • 1
  • Gustavo A. Peñuela
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biological EngineeringUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Grupo GDCON, Facultad de Ingeniería, Sede de Investigación Universitaria (SIU)Universidad de AntioquiaMedellínColombia

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