A global perspective on the biology, impact and management of Chenopodium album and Chenopodium murale: two troublesome agricultural and environmental weeds

  • Ali Ahsan BajwaEmail author
  • Usman Zulfiqar
  • Sehrish Sadia
  • Prasanta Bhowmik
  • Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Review Article


Chenopodium album and C. murale are cosmopolitan, annual weed species of notable economic importance. Their unique biological features, including high reproductive capacity, seed dormancy, high persistence in the soil seed bank, the ability to germinate and grow under a wide range of environmental conditions and abiotic stress tolerance, help these species to infest diverse cropping systems. C. album and C. murale grow tall and absorb nutrients very efficiently. Both these species are allelopathic in nature and, thus, suppress the germination and growth of native vegetation and/or crop plants. These weed species infest many agronomic and horticultural crops and may cause > 90% loss in crop yields. C. album is more problematic than C. murale as the former is more widespread and infests more number of crops, and it also acts as an alternate host of several crop pests. Different cultural and mechanical methods have been used to control these weed species with varying degrees of success depending upon the cropping systems and weed infestation levels. Similarly, allelopathy and biological control have also shown some potential, especially in controlling C. album. Several herbicides have been successfully used to control these species, but the evolution of wide-scale herbicide resistance in C. album has limited the efficacy of chemical control. However, the use of alternative herbicides in rotation and the integration of chemicals and biologically based control methods may provide a sustainable control of C. album and C. murale.


Chenopodium spp. Common lambsquarters Integrated weed management Herbicide resistance Weed biology Environmental protection 



The authors declare that there was no financial support received specifically for this manuscript. Ali Ahsan Bajwa is thankful to the University of Queensland for the provision of a scholarship for his PhD studies.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Agriculture and Food SciencesThe University of QueenslandGattonAustralia
  2. 2.The Centre for Crop Science, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food InnovationThe University of QueenslandGattonAustralia
  3. 3.Department of AgronomyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Department of BotanyLahore College for Women UniversityLahorePakistan
  5. 5.Stockbridge School of AgricultureUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

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