Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 8, pp 7550–7565 | Cite as

Enhanced lake-eutrophication model combined with a fish sub-model using a microcosm experiment

  • Xia Li
  • Lina HaoEmail author
  • Likun Yang
  • Guojin Li
  • Ruiqi Nan
Research Article


Eutrophication models are effective tools for assessing aquatic environments. The lake ecosystem consists of at least three trophic levels: phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish. However, only a few studies have included fish sub-models in existing eutrophication models. In addition, no specific value or range is available for certain parameters of the fish sub-model. In the present study, a lake microcosm experimental system was established to determine the range of fish sub-model parameters. A three-trophic-level eutrophication model was established by combining the fish sub-model and eutrophication model. The Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo and genetic algorithm method was used to calibrate the parameters of the eutrophication model. The results show that the maximum relative errors were due to phosphate (5.31%), the minimum relative error was due to nitrate (1.94%), and the relative error of dissolved oxygen, ammonia N, zooplankton, and chlorophyll ranged from 3 to 4%. Compared with the two-trophic-level eutrophication model, the relative errors of ammonia nitrogen (4.17%), phosphate (− 5.31%), and nitrate (1.94%) in the three-trophic-level eutrophication model were lower than those in the two-trophic-level eutrophication model, indicating that the three-trophic-level eutrophication model can obtain highly accurate simulation results and provide a better understanding of eutrophication models for future use.


Eutrophication model Fish sub-model Microcosm experiment Three-trophic-level model Urban lake MCMC-GA 


Funding information

This project was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 51409189).

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was performed in strict accordance with the NIH guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals (NIH Publication No. 85-23 Rev. 1985) and was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Tianjin University of Technology.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_4069_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.2 mb)
ESM 1 (DOC 1205 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and Safety EngineeringTianjin University of TechnologyTianjinChina
  2. 2.CAUPD Beijing Planning & Design Consultants Co.BeijingChina
  3. 3.Tianjin Municipal Engineering Design &Research InstituteTianjinChina

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