Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) provides not only bee products of immense value but also render invaluable free service as cross-pollination and propagation of several cultivated and wild species, thereby, maintaining biological diversity. Bee larvae and adults might be killed or suffer various sublethal effects when placed in contact with pollen and nectar contaminated with insecticides. The present work was conducted to investigate the toxicity of seven insecticides on laboratory using oral toxicity test and their side effects on A. mellifera in cotton fields. Results indicated that lambda-cyhalothrin was the most toxic-tested pesticide, recording the lowest LC50 and LC90 values at all tested periods and the lowest LT50 and LT90 at all tested concentrations, followed by abamectin, spinosad, chlorpyrifos, and emamectin benzoate. On the other side, dipel and pyridalyl recording the highest LC50 and LC90 at all tested periods and the highest LT50 and LT90 at all tested concentrations. As for the application of pesticides in cotton fields, the tested pesticides significantly increased the number of dead workers in comparison with control. The tested pesticides significantly decreased bee foraging activities, i.e., number of foraging workers, number of worker collecting nectar, number of worker gathering pollen grains, area of broad workers, and honey bee yields. Dipel and pyridalyl were the most safety pesticides on honey bee workers in laboratory and field, so it could be introduced as a component in IPM programs of cotton pests.
Toxicity Side effects Insecticides and honey bee workers Apis mellifera
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I am a single author, so, I conceived this research and designed experiments; design and interpretation of the data; carried out experiments and analysis; wrote the paper; and participated in the revisions.
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