Advertisement

Effect of diesel-methanol-nitromethane blends combustion on VCR stationary CI engine performance and exhaust emissions

  • Chandan KumarEmail author
  • Kunj Bihari Rana
  • Brajesh Tripathi
Research Article
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

The continuous rise in cost of fossil fuels and environmental pollution has attracted research in the area of clean alternative fuels for improving the performance and emission of internal combustion engines. In the present work, methanol and nitromethane were treated as a biofuel and investigations have been made to evaluate the feasibility of replacing diesel with a suitable diesel-methanol-nitromethane blend. For this, experimental investigations were carried out on a VCR diesel engine using diesel-methanol-nitromethane blends to determine the most favorable blending ratio and engine operating parameters for enhancing performance and reduce emissions. The best results of performance and emissions were observed with D-M5-NM2.5 blend (diesel 92.5%, methanol 5%, nitromethane 2.5%) at standard engine parameters. The improvement in engine performance (13% increment in BTE and 19.5% decrement in BSFC) and reduction in emission (smoke 26.47%, NOx 21.66%, and CO 14.28%) was found using D-M5-NM2.5 blend as compared to pure diesel at full load condition; however, HC emission was slightly increased by 10.71%. To find out the best suitable value of CR for D-M5-NM2.5 blend, experiments were further performed on different compression ratios by which higher compression ratio of 19.5 was found better under similar operating conditions. By increasing CR from 18.5 (standard) to 19.5, improvement in engine performance (BTE increased 3.8% and BSFC decreased 3.4%) and reduction in emission (smoke 10%, CO 16.67%, and HC 61.29%) were observed using D-M5-NM2.5 blend; however, NOx was found to be on slightly higher side with tolerable increment of 6.38%.

Keywords

Diesel Methanol Nitromethane VCR diesel engine Engine performance Emission 

Nomenclature

BP

Brake power

BSFC

Brake specific fuel consumption

BTE

Brake thermal efficiency

CA btdc

Crank angle before top dead centre

CI

Compression ignition

CN

Cetane number

CNG

Compressed natural gas

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

CR

Compression ratio

D

Diesel

DI

Direct injection

EGR

Exhaust gas recirculation

h

Hours

HC

Hydrocarbons

HSU

Hartridge smoke units

IC

Internal combustion

IMEP

Indicated mean effective pressure

IP

Injection pressure

IT

Injection timing

kg

Kilogram

kW

Kilowatt

M

Methanol

NE

Nitroethane

NM

Nitromethane

Nm

Newton meter

NOx

Nitrogen oxides

PC

Personal computer

PM

Particulate matter

ppm

Parts per million

rpm

Revolution per minutes

SI

Spark ignition

VCR

Variable compression ratio

Vol.

Volume

v/v

Volume by volume

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Rajasthan Technical University (RTU), Kota and Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Management and Gramothan (SKIT), Jaipur, for providing the research facility to conduct this study.

References

  1. Agarwal D, Agarwal AK (2007) Performance and emissions characteristics of jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Appl Therm Eng 27:2314-2323.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2007.01.009
  2. Bayindir H, Zerrakki Isik M, Aydin H (2017) Evaluation of combustion, performance and emission indicators of canola oil-kerosene blends in a power generator diesel engine. Appl Therm Eng 114:234-244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.11.184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boyer E, Kuo KK (2007) Modeling of nitromethane flame structure and burning behavior. Proc Combust Inst 31:2045-2053.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2006.07.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brusstar M, Stuhldreher M, Swain D, Pidgeon W (2002) High efficiency and low emissions from a port-injected engine with neat alcohol fuels. SAE technical paper no.2002-01-2743Google Scholar
  5. Can O, Celikten I, Usta N (2004) Effects of ethanol addition on performance and emissions of a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine running at different injection pressures. Energy Convers Manag 45:2429-2440.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2003.11.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Celik MB, Ozdalyan B, Alkan F (2011) The use of pure methanol as fuel at high compression ratio in a single cylinder gasoline engine. Fuel 90:1591-1598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chao M, Lin T, Chao H, Chang F, Chen C (2001) Effects of methanol-containing additive on emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine. Sci Total Environ 279:167-179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen G, Yu W, Li Q, Huang Z (2012) Effects of n-butanol addition on the performance and emissions of a turbocharged common-rail diesel engine. SAE technical paper. 2012-01-0852Google Scholar
  9. Chen Z, Yao C, Wang Q, Han G, Dou Z, Wei H, Wang B, Liu M, Wu T (2016) Study of cylinder-to-cylinder variation in a diesel engine fueled with diesel/methanol dual fuel. Fuel 170:67-76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.12.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen Z, Yao C, Yao A, Dou Z, Wang B, Wei H, Liu M, Chen C, Shi J (2017) The impact of methanol injecting position on cylinder-to-cylinder variation in a diesel methanol dual fuel engine. Fuel 191:150-163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.11.072. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Choi CY, Reitz RD (1999) Experimental study on the effects of oxygenated fuel blends and multiple injection strategies on DI diesel engine emissions. Fuel 78:1303-1317.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(99)00058-7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Corporan E, DeWitt M, Wagner M (2004) Evaluation of soot particulate mitigation additives in a T63 engine. Fuel Process Technol 85:727-742.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2003.11.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corsini A, Marchegiani A, Rispoli F, Sciulli F, Venturini P (2015) Vegetable oils as fuels in diesel engine. Engine performance and emissions. Energy Procedia 81:942-949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Curran HJ, Fisher EM, Glaude PA, Marinov NM, Pitz WJ, Westbrook CK, et al. (2001) Detailed chemical kinetic modeling of diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels. SAE trans. 2001-01-0653Google Scholar
  15. Datta A, Mandal BK (2016) Impact of alcohol addition to diesel on the performance combustion and emissions of a compression ignition engine. Appl Therm Eng 98:670-682.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.12.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Desjardins PP, Pitsch H, Malhotra R, Kirby SR, Boehman AL (2008) Structural group analysis for soot reduction tendency of oxygenated fuels. Combust Flame 154:191-205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2008.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Divekar PS, Chen X, Tjong J, Zheng M (2016) Energy efficiency impact of EGR on organizing clean combustion in diesel engines. Energy Convers Manag 112:369-381.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.01.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fayyazbakhsh A, Pirouzfar V (2016) Determining the optimum conditions for modified diesel fuel combustion considering its emission, properties and engine performance. Energy Convers Manag 113:209-219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.01.058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fayyazbakhsh A, Pirouzfar V (2017) Comprehensive overview on diesel additives to reduce emissions, enhance fuel properties and improve engine performance. Renew Sust Energ Rev 74:891-901.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.03.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Franco V, Mock P (2015) Real driving emissions: challenges to regulating diesel engine in Europe. The international council on clean transportation: 2015Google Scholar
  21. Geng P, Cao E, Tan Q, Wei L (2016) Effects of alternative fuels on the combustion characteristics and emission products from diesel engines: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 71:523-534.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.12.080. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Giakoumis EG, Rakopoulos CD, Dimaratos AM, Rakopoulos DC (2013) Exhaust emissions with ethanol or n-butanol diesel fuel blends during transient operation : a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 17:170-190.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huang Z, Lu H, Jiang D, Zeng K, Liu B, Zhang J, Wang X (2004) Combustion behaviors of a compression-ignition engine fuelled with diesel/methanol blends under various fuel delivery advance angles. Bioresour Technol 95:331-341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huang H, Zhou C, Liu Q, Wang Q, Wang X (2016) An experimental study on the combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine under low temperature combustion of diesel/gasoline/n-butanol blends. Appl Energy 170:219-231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jain NL, Soni SL, Poonia MP, Sharma D, Srivastava AK, Jain H (2017) Performance and emission characteristics of preheated and blended thumba vegetable oil in a compression ignition engine. Appl Therm Eng 113:970-979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jang YS, Malaviya A, Cho C, Lee J, Lee SY (2012) Butanol production from renewable biomass by clostridia. Bioresour Technol 123:653-663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khalife E, Tabatabaei B, Demirbas AAM (2017) Impacts of additives on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines during steady state operation. Prog Energy Combust Sci 59:32-78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2016.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kumar S, Cho JH, Park J, Moon I (2013) Advances in diesel-alcohol blends and their effects on the performance and emissions of diesel engines. Renew Sust Energ Rev 22:46-72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.01.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kumar C, Bafna M, Nayyar A, Parkash V, Goyal N (2014) Experimental investigation of the performance of VCR diesel engine fuelled by NM-diesel blend. IJETAE 4:122-125Google Scholar
  30. Kumar C, Nayyar A, Bafna M, Agarwal A (2015) Parkash V ( 2015)analysis of emission characteristic of NM-diesel blend on VCR diesel engine. IJMECH 4:115-124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kumar C, Rana KB, Tripathi B, Gupta P (2018a) Combustion characteristics of methanol blended diesel fuel in CI engine. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 50:101-104Google Scholar
  32. Kumar C, Rana KB, Tripathi B, Nayyar A (2018b) A comparative study of oxygenated additives for diesel in compression ignition engine. Int J Renew Energy Technol 9:16-27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kumar C, Rana KB, Tripathi B, Nayyar A (2018c) Properties and effects of organic additives on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine: a comprehensive review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:22475-22498.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2537-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lapuerta M, Armas O, Herreros JM (2008) Emissions from a diesel-bioethanol blend in an automotive diesel engine. Fuel 87:25-31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2007.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leclerc FB (2008) Detailed chemical kinetic models for the low-temperature combustion of hydrocarbons with application to gasoline and diesel fuel surrogates. Prog Energy Combust Sci 34:440-498.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2007.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Luo J, Yao M, Liu H, Yang B (2012) Experimental and numerical study on suitable diesel fuel surrogates in low temperature combustion conditions. Fuel 97:621-629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moffat RJ (1988) Describing the uncertainties in experimental results. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 1:3-17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0894-1777(88)90043-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moghaddam MS, Moghaddam AZ (2014) Chemical engineering research and design performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with diesel-nitrogenated additives. Chem Eng Res Des 92(4):720-726.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2014.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Moghaddam MS, Moghaddam MM, Aghili S, Absalan A, Najafi A (2012) Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with diesel-nitrogenated additives. Int J Chem Eng Appl 3:363-365.  https://doi.org/10.7763/IJCEA.2012.V3.219 Google Scholar
  40. Mohsin R, Majid ZA, Shihnan AH, Nasri NS, Sharer Z (2014) Effect of biodiesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emission for diesel dual fuel engine. Energy Convers Manag 88:821-828.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.09.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nabi MN, Hustad JE (2010) Experimental investigation of engine emissions with marine gas oil-oxygenate blends. Sci Total Environ 408:3231-3239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Najafi G, Yusaf TF (2009) Experimental investigation of using methanol-diesel blended fuels in diesel engine. Proc of the Fourth International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications 1-5Google Scholar
  43. Nayyar A, Sharma D, Soni SL, Mathur A (2017) Experimental investigation of performance and emissions of a VCR diesel engine fuelled with n-butanol diesel blends under varying engine parameters. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:20315-20329.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9599-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nichols RJ (2003) The methanol story: a sustainable fuel for the future. J Sci Ind Res 62:97-105Google Scholar
  45. Palash SM, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Masum BM, Sanjid A, Abedin MJ (2013) State of the art of NOx mitigation technologies and their effect on the performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel-fueled compression ignition engines. Energy Convers Manag 76:400-420.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.07.059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Park SH, Choi KB, Kim MY, Lee CS (2013) Experimental investigation and prediction of density and viscosity of GTL, GTL−biodiesel, and GTL−diesel blends as a function of temperature. Energy Fuel 27(1):56-65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Plint MA, Martyr A (2007) Engine testing theory and practice, third edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  48. Popa MG, Negurescu N, Pana C, Racovitza A (2001) Results obtained by methanol fuelling diesel engine SAE technical paper. 2001-01-3748Google Scholar
  49. Putrasari Y, Nur A, Muharam A (2013) Performance and emission characteristic on a two cylinder DI diesel engine fuelled with ethanol-diesel blends. Phys Procedia 32:21-30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.05.004 Google Scholar
  50. Rahman MM, Stevanovic S, Brown RJ, Ristovski Z (2013) Influence of different alternative fuels on particle emission from a turbocharged common-rail diesel engine. Procedia Eng 56:381-386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rajasekar E, Murugesan A, Subramanian R, Nedunchezhian N (2010) Review of NOx reduction technologies in CI engines fuelled with oxygenated biomass fuels. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14:2113-2121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rakopoulos DC, Rakopoulos CD, Giakoumis EG, Papagiannakis RG, Kyritsis DC (2014) Influence of properties of various common bio-fuels on the combustion and emission characteristics of high-speed DI (direct injection) diesel engine: vegetable oil, bio-diesel, ethanol, n-butanol, diethyl ether. Energy 73:354-366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ramalingam S, Rajendran S, Ganesan P (2018) Performance improvement and exhaust emissions reduction in biodiesel operated diesel engine through the use of operating parameters and catalytic converter: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 81:3215-3222.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.08.069. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Roberts M, (2003) Benefits and challenges of variable compression ratio (VCR). SAE Technical Paper doi: https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-0398
  55. Sato Y, Noda A, Sakamoto T (1997) Combustion and NOx emission characteristics in a DI methanol engine using supercharging with EGR. SAE Technical Paper. 971647Google Scholar
  56. Sayin C (2010) Engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of methanol and ethanol-diesel blends. Fuel 89:3410-3415.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.02.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sayin C, Ilhan M, Canakci M, Gumus M (2009) Effect of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using diesel - methanol blends. Renew Energy 34:1261-1269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2008.10.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sayin C, Ozsezen AN, Canakci M (2010) The influence of operating parameters on the performance and emissions of a DI diesel engine using methanol-blended-diesel fuel. Fuel 89:1407-1414.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2009.10.035. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Senthilraja R, Sivakumar V, Thirugnanasambandham K, Nedunchezhian N (2016) Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a dual fuel engine with diesel-ethanol - cotton seed oil methyl ester blends and compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel. Energy 112:899-907.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.06.114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Srivastava DK, Agarwal AK (2018) Combustion characteristics of a variable compression ratio laser-plasma ignited compressed natural gas engine. Fuel 214:322-329.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.10.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sukjit E, Herreros JM, Dearn KD, García-Contreras R, Tsolakis A (2012) The effect of the addition of individual methyl esters on the combustion and emissions of ethanol and butanol -diesel blends. Energy 42:364-374.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.03.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tang D, Zhao R, Wang S, Wang J, Ni L, Chen L (2017) The simulation and experimental research of particulate matter sensor on diesel engine with diesel particulate filter. Sensors Actuators A Phys 259:160-170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2017.03.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tutak W (2014) Bioethanol E85 as a fuel for dual fuel diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag 86:39-48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.05.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tutak W, Lukacs K, Szwaja S, Bereczky A (2015) Alcohol-diesel fuel combustion in the compression ignition engine. Fuel 154:196-206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Udayakumar R, Sundaram S, Sivakumar K (2004) Engine performance and exhaust characteristics of dual fuel operation in di diesel engine with methanol. SAE Technical Paper 10.4271/2004-010096.Google Scholar
  66. Wang X, Huang Z, Zhang W, Kuti OA, Nishida K (2011) Effects of ultra-high injection pressure and micro-hole nozzle on flame structure and soot formation of impinging diesel spray. Appl Energy 88:1620-1628.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.11.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wang Q, Wei L, Pan W, Yao C (2015) Investigation of operating range in a methanol fumigated diesel engine. Fuel 140:164-170.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.09.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wang Z, Zhou S, Feng Y, Zhu Y (2017) Research of NOx reduction on a low-speed two-stroke marine diesel engine by using EGR (exhaust gas recirculation)-CB (cylinder bypass) and EGB (exhaust gas bypass). Int J Hydrog Energy 42:19337-19345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wei L, Yao C, Wang Q, Pan W, Han G (2015) Combustion and emission characteristics of a turbocharged diesel engine using high premixed ratio of methanol and diesel fuel. Fuel 140:156-163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.09.070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wei H, Yao C, Pan W, Han G, Dou Z, Wu T, Liu M, Wang B, Gao J, Chen C, Shi J (2017) Experimental investigations of the effects of pilot injection on combustion and gaseous emission characteristics of diesel / methanol dual fuel engine. Fuel 188:427-441.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.10.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Yao C, Cheung CS, Cheng C, Wang Y (2007) Reduction of smoke and NOx from diesel engines using a diesel/methanol compound combustion system. Energy Fuel 21:686-691.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ef0602731 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yao C, Cheung CS, Cheng C, Wang Y, Chan TL, Lee SC (2008) Effect of diesel/methanol compound combustion on diesel engine combustion and emissions. Energy Convers Manag 49:1696-1704.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2007.11.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Yao C, Hu J, Geng P, Shi J, Zhang D, Ju Y (2017) Effects of injection pressure on ignition and combustion characteristics of diesel in a premixed methanol/air mixture atmosphere in a constant volume combustion chamber. Fuel 206:593-602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhen X, Wang Y (2015) An overview of methanol as an internal combustion engine fuel. Renew Sust Energ Rev 52:477-493.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.083 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zhen XD, Wang Y, Xu SQ, Zhu YS (2013) Numerical analysis on knock for a high compression ratio spark-ignition methanol engine. Fuel 103:892-898CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chandan Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kunj Bihari Rana
    • 1
  • Brajesh Tripathi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringRajasthan Technical UniversityKotaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSwami Keshvanand Institute of Technology Management & GramothanJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations