Environmental Metabolic Footprinting (EMF) vs. half-life: a new and integrative proxy for the discrimination between control and pesticides exposed sediments in order to further characterise pesticides’ environmental impact
- 648 Downloads
Pesticides are regularly used for a variety of applications and are disseminated throughout the environment. These substances may have significant negative impacts. To date, the half-life, t1/2, was often used to study the fate of pesticides in environmental matrices (water, soil, sediment). However, this value gives limited information. First, it does not evaluate the formation of by-products, resulting in the need for additional experiments to be performed to evaluate biodegradation and biotransformation products. T1/2 also fails to consider the chemical’s impact on biodiversity. Resilience time, a new and integrative proxy, was recently proposed as an alternative to t1/2, with the potential to evaluate all the post-application effects of the chemical on the environment. The ‘Environmental Metabolic Footprinting’ (EMF) approach, giving an idea of the resilience time, was used to evaluate the impact of botanicals on soil. The goal is to optimise the EMF to study the impact of a microbial insecticide, the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), on sediment. The difficulty of this work lies in the commercial solution of Bti that is really complex, and this complexity yields chromatograms that are extremely difficult to interpret; t1/2 cannot be used. No methodologies currently exist to monitor the impact of these compounds on the environment. We will test the EMF to determine if it is sensitive enough to tolerate such complex mixtures. A pure chemical insecticide, the α-cypermethrin, will be also studied. The article shows that the EMF is able to distinguish meta-metabolome differences between control and exposed (with Bti) sediments.
KeywordsBiocontrol product (Bti) Chemical insecticide Environmental impact Sediment Resilience time LC-MS Metabolomics
The authors gratefully thank our partners from the EID Méditerranée, Christophe Lagneau and Benoit Frances, for supplying the Bti solution and for their valuable help with the water and sediment sampling. They also want to thank Jeanine Almany for her help with the English revision of the paper.
The spectroscopic experiments have been performed using the Biodiversité et Biotechnologies Marines (Bio2Mar, http://bio2mar.obs-banyuls.fr/fr/index.html) facilities at the University of Perpignan via Domitia.
- Anastassiades M, Lehotay SJ, Stajnbaher D, Schenck FJ (2003) Fast and easy multiresidue method employing acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and “dispersive solid-phase extraction” for the determination of pesticide residues in produce Journal of AOAC International 86: 412-431Google Scholar
- Brown AWA (1986) Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes: a pragmatic review. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2:123–140Google Scholar
- Dray S, Dufour AB (2007) The ade4 package: implementing the duality diagram for ecologists https://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/ade4/article/jss/jss.pdf, Accessed 6 February 2017
- Duchet C, Tetreau G, Marie A, Rey D, Besnard G, Perrin Y, Paris M, David JP, Lagneau C, Després L (2014) Persistence and recycling of Bioinsecticidal bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in contrasting environments: evidence from field monitoring and laboratory experiments Microb. Ecol 67:576–586Google Scholar
- Holstein M (1967) Dynamics of Aedes aegypti distribution, density and seasonal prevalence in the Mediterranean area. Bull World Health Organ 36:541–543Google Scholar
- Romdhane S., Devers-Lamrani M., Martin-Laurent F., Calvayrac C., Rocaboy-Faquet E., Riboul D., Cooper J.C., Barthelmebs L. (2015) Isolation and characterization of Bradyrhizobium sp. SR1 degrading two β-triketone herbicides. Environ Sci Pollut Res 1–11Google Scholar
- Salvia MV, Vulliet E, Wiest L, Baudot R, Cren-Olivé C (2012) Development of a multi-residue method using acetonitrile-based extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of steroids and veterinary and human drugs at trace levels in soil. J Chromatogr A 1245:122–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Salvia MV, Cren-Olivé C, Wiest L, Baudot R, Vulliet E (2014) Comparison of two analytical methods for the determination of traces of veterinary antibiotics and steroid hormones in soil based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe (modified-QuEChERS) extraction Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta 9: 1–9. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/comparison-of-two-analytical-methods-for-the-determination-of-traces-of-veterinary-antibiotics-and-steroid-hormones-2153-2435.1000315.pdf, Accessed 6 February 2017
- Tetreau G, Alessi M, Veyrenc S, Périgon S, David JP, Reynaud S, Desprès L (2012) Fate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Israelensis in the Fiels: Evidence for Spore Recycling and Differential Persistence of Toxins in Leaf Litter Applied Environmental Microbioogy 78:8362–8367Google Scholar
- van den Berg H, Zaim M, Yadav RS, Soares A, Ameneshewa B, Mnzava A, Hii J, Dash AP, Ejov M (2012) Global trends in the use of insecticides to control vector-borne diseases Research 120: 577–582Google Scholar
- Zaim M., Guillet P. (2002) Alternative insecticides: an urgent need trends Parasitol 18: 161-163Google Scholar