One more step toward a push-pull strategy combining both a trap crop and plant volatile organic compounds against the cabbage root fly Delia radicum
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The “push-pull” strategy aims at manipulating insect pest behavior using a combination of attractive and repulsive stimuli using either plants derived volatile organic compounds or insect host plant preferences. In a field experiment using broccoli as a crop, we combined in a “push-pull” context the oviposition deterrent effect of dimethyl disulfide and the attractive effect of a Chinese cabbage strip enhanced with Z-3-hexenyl-acetate. The push component dimethyl disulfide reduced Delia radicum L. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) oviposition on broccoli by nearly 30%, and applying Z-3-hexenyl-acetate in the pull component of Chinese cabbage increased it by 40%. Moreover, pest infestation was 40% higher in Chinese cabbage compared to broccoli and parasitism by Trybliographa rapae Westwood (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) was four times higher on this trap plant. In addition, lab experiments confirmed that Chinese cabbage is a more suitable host plant than broccoli for the cabbage root fly. Taken together, our results demonstrate the technical possibility of using a push-pull strategy to manipulate the egg-laying behavior of D. radicum in the field.
KeywordsBehavioral manipulation Plant-insect interactions Volatile organic compounds Brassicaceae Delia radicum L. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Parasitoid
Volatile organic compound
We thank the staff of the “Domaine experimental de la Motte au Vicomte UE0787” (INRA Center, Le Rheu, France) and especially Gabriel Nedelec for his advice and help with the field experiment. The authors acknowledge Valentin Gaudu and Chloe Guyot for the precious help provided during the monitoring of the field experiment.
AMC, DP, SD, and FL conceived and designed research. VF helped designing the field experiment. DP and SD conducted laboratory experiments. FL and VC conducted field experiments. FL and DP analyzed data. FL wrote the manuscript. All authors commented and approved the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
This work was financed by the project “PURE” and a grant of the French Ministry for Research (MESR) to FL.
Conflict of interest
Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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