Biocontrol of the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici using cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis
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Innovation toward ecofriendly plant protection products compatible with sustainable agriculture and healthy food is today strongly encouraged. Here, we assessed the biocontrol activity of three cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis (mycosubtilin, M; surfactin, S; fengycin, F) and two mixtures (M + S and M + S + F) on wheat against Zymoseptoria tritici, the main pathogen on this crop. Foliar application of these biomolecules at a 100-mg L−1 concentration on the wheat cultivars Dinosor and Alixan, 2 days before fungal inoculation, provided significant reductions of disease severity. The best protection levels were recorded with the M-containing formulations (up to 82% disease reduction with M + S on Dinosor), while S and F treatments resulted in lower but significant disease reductions. In vitro and in planta investigations revealed that M-based formulations inhibit fungal growth, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 1.4 mg L−1 for both M and M + S and 4.5 mg L−1 for M + S + F, thus revealing that the observed efficacy of these products may rely mainly on antifungal property. By contrast, S and F had no direct activity on the pathogen, hence suggesting that these lipopeptides act on wheat against Z. tritici as resistance inducers rather than as biofungicides. This study highlighted the efficacy of several lipopeptides from B. subtilis to biocontrol Z. tritici through likely distinct and biomolecule-dependent modes of action.
KeywordsWheat Zymoseptoria tritici Biocontrol Bacillus subtilis Lipopeptides Mycosubtilin
We thank Corentin Duthoo for his technical help during this study and Dr. Gabrielle Chataigné for the HPLC-MS analysis. This research was conducted in the framework of the projects NewBioPest supported by the Hauts-de-France council (France) and both BioProtect and BioScreen supported by INTERREG V SMARTBIOCONTROL (European Union).
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