Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 8362–8370 | Cite as

Cities of the future—bionic systems of new urban environment

  • Alicja Edyta KrzemińskaEmail author
  • Anna Danuta Zaręba
  • Anna Dzikowska
  • Katarzyna Rozalia Jarosz
Environmental Aspects in the Sustainable Energy Development


The concepts of the cities we know nowadays, and which we are accustomed to, change at a very rapid pace. The philosophy of their design is also changing. It will base on new standards, entering a completely different, futuristic dimension. This stage is related to changes in the perception of space, location and lack of belonging to definite, national or cultural structures. Cities of the future are cities primarily intelligent, zero-energetic, zero-waste, environmentally sustainable, self-sufficient in terms of both organic food production and symbiosis between the environment and industry. New cities will be able to have new organisational structures—either city states, or, apolitical, jigsaw-like structures that can change their position—like in the case of the city of Artisanopolis, designed as a floating city, close to the land, reminiscent of the legendary Atlantis. This paper is focused on the main issues connected with problems of the contemporary city planning. The purpose of the research was to identify existing technological solutions, whose aim is to use solar energy and urban greenery. The studies were based on literature related to future city development issues and futuristic projects of the architects and city planners. In the paper, the following issues have been verified: futuristic cities and districts, and original bionic buildings, both residential and industrial. The results of the analysis have been presented in a tabular form.


Urban systems Intelligent cities Futuristic urban planning 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Anguluri R, Narayanan P (2017) Role of green space in urban planning: outlook towards smart cities. Urban For Urban Green 25:58–65. Google Scholar
  2. Archinect (2008) ShowCase: LILYPAD, A floating ecopolis for ecological refugees. Accessed 24 July 2017
  3. Baetens R, Jelle PB, Gustavsen A (2010) Properties, requirements and possibilities of smart windows for dynamic daylight and solar energy control in buildings: a state-of-the-art review. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 94(2):87–105. Google Scholar
  4. Beautiful Life (2011) Vincent Callebaut’s futuristic skyscraper. Accessed 24 July 2017
  5. Bhubaneswari P, Iniyan S, Goic R (2011) A review of solar photovoltaic technologies. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15(3):1625–1636. Google Scholar
  6. Breuste J, Pauleit S, Haase D, Sauerwein M (2016) Stadtökosysteme. Springer, Heidelberg. Google Scholar
  7. Burton E (2001) The compact city and social justice. Housing, environment and sustainability. Paper presented at the Housing Studies Association Spring Conference, 18-19 April 2001, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Callebaut V (2001) Elasticity, an underwater city. Vincent Callebaut Architectures. Accessed 24 July 2017
  9. Callebaut V (2009) DRAGONFLY metabolic farm for urban agriculture. Vincent Callebaut Architectures. Accessed 24 July 2017
  10. Callebaut V (2010) PHYSALIA amphibious garden cleaning pollution of European waterways. Vincent Callebaut Architectures. Accessed 24 July 2017
  11. Callebaut V (2013) ASIAN CAIRNS sustainable megaliths for rural urbanity. Vincent Callebaut Architectures. Accessed 24 July 2017
  12. Callebaut V (2014) CITYTREES plus-energy DNA towers. Vincent Callebaut Architectures. Accessed 24 July 2017
  13. (2017) Where city meets nature. Accessed 28 July 2017
  14. Cervero R (2001) Efficient urbanization: economic performance and the shape of metropolis. Urban Stud 38(10):1651–1671. Google Scholar
  15. Charan AS and Venkataraman H (2017) Greening the economy: a review of urban sustainability measures for developing new cities. Sustain Cities Soc 32: 1–8.
  16. Chiesura A (2004) The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landsc Urban Plan 68(1):129–138. Google Scholar
  17. CNN (2015) Insane Ocean Spiral proposed as giant underwater city. Accessed 24 July 2017
  18. Collye M (2015) Three million people move to cities every week: so how can cities plan for migrants? City Metric. Accessed 28 July 2017
  19. Dawis M (2017) Light Park Floating Skyscraper | Ting Xu & Yiming Chen. Accessed 24 July 2017
  20. Demirjian L (2017) Cite a website—cite this for me. 0.286. Accessed 24 July 2017
  21. (2016) City in the sky: a futuristic lotus-shaped oasis tower. Accessed 24 July 2017
  22. Despommier D (2010) The vertical farm: feeding the world in the 21st century. St. Martin’s Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Drożdż-Szczybura M (2014) Vertical farms in the cities of the future. Technical transactions. Architecture 2A:51–66. Google Scholar
  24. Edwards B (2014) Rough guide to sustainability: a design primer. RIBA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Eltawil MA, Zhao Z (2010) Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: technical and potential problems—a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14(1):112–129. Google Scholar
  26. (2010) Harvest City is a floating agricultural and industrial city for Haiti. eVolo Architecture Magazine Accessed 24 July 2017
  27. (2012) Aakash Skyscraper. eVolo Architecture Magazine Accessed 24 July 2017
  28. (2012a) Coal power plant mutation. eVolo Architecture Magazine Accessed 24 July 2017
  29. Farr D (2007) Sustainable urbanism. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Frearson A (2011) The cloud by MVRDV. Dezeen. Accessed 24 July 2017
  31. Gibbons S (2015) Gone with the wind: valuing the visual impacts of wind turbines through house prices. J Environ Econ Manag 72:177–196. Google Scholar
  32. Groenewegen PP, van den Berg AE, de Vries S, Verheij RA (2006) Vitamin G: effects of green space on health, well-being, and social safety. BMC Public Health 6(1):149., Accessed: 20 July 2017
  33. Grozdanic L (2013) Norwegian town creates ‘artificial sun’ to light up dark winter days. Accessed 27 July 2017
  34. Haase D, Kabisch S, Haase A, Andersson E, Banzhaft E, Baró F, Brenck M, Fisher LK, Frantzeskaki N, Kabisch N, Krellenberg K, Kremer P, Kronenberg J, Larondelle N, Mathey J, PauleitS RI, Ring D, Schwarz N, Wilff M (2017) Green cities—to be socially inclusive? About the alleged paradox of society and ecology in cities. Habitat International 64:41–49. Google Scholar
  35. Hall P (1988) Cities of tomorrow: an intellectual history of urban planning and design in the twentieth century. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  36. Hall P, Pfeiffer U (2000) Urban future 21: a global agenda for 21st century cities. E. & F.N. Spon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. ITV News (2017) ‘No shadow’ skyscraper planned for the capital—but how does it work? Accessed 27 July 2017
  38. Jenks M, Burton E, Williams K (1996) The compact city: a sustainable urban form? E. & F.N. Spon, New York. Google Scholar
  39. Kamat PV (2007) Meeting the clean energy demand: nanostructure architectures for solar energy conversion. J Phys Chem 111(7):2834–2860. Google Scholar
  40. Khoshtaria TK, Chachava NT (2017) The planning of urban green areas and its protective importance in resort cities (case of Georgian resorts). Ann Agrar Sci 15(2):217–223. Google Scholar
  41. Lampert CM (1998) Smart switchable glazing for solar energy and daylight control. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 52(3–4):207–221. Google Scholar
  42. Lampert CM (2003) Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 76(4):489–499. Google Scholar
  43. Lampert CM (2004) Chromogenic smart materials. Mater Today 7(3):28–35. Google Scholar
  44. Lang C, Opaluch JJ, Sfinarolkis G (2014) The windy city: property value impacts of wind turbines in an urban setting. Energy Econ 44:413–421. Google Scholar
  45. Lehmann S (2006) Towards a sustainable city centre: integrating ecologically sustainable development (ESD) principles into urban renewal. J Green Build 1(3):83–104. Google Scholar
  46. Lehmann S (2010) The principles of green urbanism. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. Lehmann S (2016) Sustainable urbanism: towards a framework for quality and optimal density? Future Cities and Environment 2:8. Accessed 26 July 2017. Google Scholar
  48. Meinhold B (2013) pH conditioner: floating jellyfish skyscrapers combat air pollution while producing fresh water. Accessed 24 July 2017
  49. Melosi MV (2005) Garbage in the cities: refuse reform and the environment. History of the urban environment. University of Pittsburgh, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  50. Neuman M (2005) The compact city fallacy. J Plan Educ Res 25(1):11–26. Google Scholar
  51. Patarkalashvili TK (2017) Urban forests and green spaces of Tbilisi and ecological problems of the city. Ann Agrar Sci 15(2):187–191. Google Scholar
  52. Peterson C (2012) Advanced aeroponics (Kindle edition)Google Scholar
  53. Powell RS, Aydin D (2014) Future cities and environmental sustainability. Future Cities Environ 2(1):1–23. Google Scholar
  54. Quagliarini E, Bondioli F, Goffredo GB, Cordoni C, Munafò P (2012) Self-cleaning and de-polluting stone surfaces: TiO2 nanoparticles for limestone. Constr Build Mater 37:51–57. Google Scholar
  55. Qubbaj K (2013) The Himalayas water towers. Khalid Qubbaj. Engineering Design Web-Blog. Accessed 24 July 2017
  56. Ragheb M (2014) Wind turbines in the city. Online: Accessed: 26 July 2017
  57. Ragheb M (2015) Vertical axis wind turbines. Online: Accessed: 27 July 2017
  58. Resh HM (2012) Hydroponic food production: a definitive guidebook for the advanced home gardener and the commercial hydroponic grower. CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Miami. Google Scholar
  59. Richardson H and Gordon P (2001) Compactness or sprawl: America’s future vs. the present. In: Echenique M and Saint A (ed) Cities for the new millenium E. and F.N. Spon Press, London, pp 53–66Google Scholar
  60. Roaf S, Crichton D, Nicol F (2009) Adapting buildings and cities for climate change. Architectural Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  61. Rudd H, Vala J, Schaefer V (2002) Importance of backyard habitat in a comprehensive biodiversity conservation strategy: a connectivity analysis of urban green spaces. Restor Ecol 10(2):368–375. Google Scholar
  62. Salataa F, Golasi I, de Lieto Vollaroa A, de Lieto Vollaro R (2015) How high albedo and traditional buildings’ materials and vegetation affect the quality of urban microclimate. Energy Build 99:32–49. Google Scholar
  63. Shah A, Torres P, Tscharner R, Wyesch N, Keppner H (1999) Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells. Science 285(5428):692–698. Google Scholar
  64. (2017) A new interface between humankind and the deep sea—a deep sea future city concept—Ocean Spiral. Accessed 24 July 2017
  65. Shiqiao L (2008) Hong-Kong: the city of maximum quantities. In: William S, Lim W (eds) Asian alterity, world scientific, Singapore, pp 28–54. Google Scholar
  66. Shirvani S (2017) Forest city master plan | Sasaki Associates. Accessed 24 July 2017
  67. Singh S, Kennedy C (2015) Estimating future energy use and CO2 emissions of the world’s cities. Environ Pollut 203:271–278. Google Scholar
  68. Sky Greens (2014) Accessed 24 July 2017
  69. Sky Greens (2017) About sky greens. Accessed 27 July 2017
  70. Takano T, Nakamura K, Watanabe M (2002) Urban residential environments and senior citizens’ longevity in megacity areas: the importance of walkable green spaces. J Epidemiol Community Health 56(12):913–918. Google Scholar
  71. (2015) Futuristic Paris Smart City is filled with flourishing green skyscrapers. Accessed 24 July 2017
  72. The Venus Project (2017) Aims and proposals | the Venus Project. Accessed 24 July 2017
  73. Tripanagnostopoulos Y, Siabekou Ch and Tonui K (2005) The Fresnel lens for solar control of buildings Int. Conference Passive and Low Energy Cooling for Built Environment, May 2005 Santorini, Greece. pp 977-982, Accessed: 27.07.2017
  74. Tripanagnostopoulos Y, Souliotis M, Tonui J K and Kavga A (2004) Illumination aspects for efficient greenhouses. Int Conference, Leuven, Belgium, 12–16 September 2004Google Scholar
  75. United Nations (2014) World urbanization prospects: the 2014 revision, highlights. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division Accessed 27 July 2017Google Scholar
  76. (2017) City of the future: HydroNet. Accessed 24 July 2017
  77. Vandevyvere H, Stremke S (2012) Urban planning for a renewable energy future: methodological challenges and opportunities from a design perspective. Sustainability 4(12):1309–1328. Google Scholar
  78. Wuhua L, Xianging H (2011) Review of nonisolated high-step-up DC/DC converters in photovoltaic grid-connected applications. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 58(4):1239–1250. Google Scholar
  79. Zhaowu Y, Xieying G, Jørgensen G, Vejre H (2017) How can urban green spaces be planned for climate adaptation in subtropical cities? Ecol Indic 82:152–162. Google Scholar
  80. Zimmer L (2014) Self-sufficient Sub-Biosphere 2 can house 100 people under the sea. Accessed 24 July 2017

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alicja Edyta Krzemińska
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anna Danuta Zaręba
    • 1
  • Anna Dzikowska
    • 2
  • Katarzyna Rozalia Jarosz
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Earth Sciences and Environmental ManagementUniversity of WrocławWrocławPoland
  2. 2.General Tadeusz Kościuszko Military Academy of Land ForcesWrocławPoland
  3. 3.International University of Logistics and Transport in WrocławWrocławPoland

Personalised recommendations