Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 30, pp 29921–29928 | Cite as

Antifungal activity of essential oils on two Venturia inaequalis strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole

  • Jérôme MuchembledEmail author
  • Caroline Deweer
  • Karin Sahmer
  • Patrice Halama
Chemistry, Activity and Impact of Plant Biocontrol products


The antifungal activity of seven essential oils (eucalyptus, clove, mint, oregano, savory, tea tree, and thyme) was studied on Venturia inaequalis, the fungus responsible for apple scab. The composition of the essential oils was checked by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each essential oil had its main compound. Liquid tests were performed to calculate the IC50 of essential oils as well as their majority compounds. The tests were made on two strains with different sensitivities to tebuconazole: S755, the sensitive strain, and rs552, the strain with reduced sensitivity. Copper sulfate was selected as the reference mineral fungicidal substance. IC50 with confidence intervals were calculated after three independent experiments. The results showed that all essential oils and all major compounds had in vitro antifungal activities. Moreover, it was highlighted that the effectiveness of four essential oils (clove, eucalyptus, mint, and savory) was higher than copper sulfate on both strains. For each strain, the best activity was obtained using clove and eucalyptus essential oils. For clove, the IC50 obtained on the sensitive strain (5.2 mg/L [4.0–6.7 mg/L]) was statistically lower than the IC50 of reduced sensitivity strain (14 mg/L [11.1–17.5 mg/L]). In contrast, for eucalyptus essential oil, the IC50 were not different with respectively 9.4–13.0 and 12.2–17.9 mg/L for S755 and rs552 strains. For mint, origano, savory, tea tree, and thyme, IC50 were always the best on rs552 strain. The majority compounds were not necessarily more efficient than their corresponding oils; only eugenol (for clove) and carvacrol (for oregano and savory) seemed to be more effective on S755 strain. On the other hand, rs552 strain seemed to be more sensitive to essential oils than S755 strain. In overall, it was shown that essential oils have different antifungal activities but do not have the same antifungal activities depending on the fungus strain used.


Biofungicide Essential oils Venturia inaequalis In vitro assay 



The authors thank Dr. Christophe Waterlot (ISA-Yncréa, LGCgE) for his assistance and suggestions.

Funding information

The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Agriculture, Agri-Food and Forestry for the co-financing of this study (CASDAR).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Charles Viollette Research Institute, EA 7394, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, ISA-YncréaLille CedexFrance
  2. 2.Civil and Geo-Environmental Engineering Laboratory (LGCgE), ISA-YncréaLille CedexFrance

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