ROS-mediated cytotoxic activity of ZnO and CeO2 nanoparticles synthesized using the Rubia cordifolia L. leaf extract on MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell lines
In the present scenario, the synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide (ZnO) and cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (NPs) through biological routes using green reducing agents are quite interesting to explore various biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, particularly for the treatment of cancer. This study was focused on the phytosynthesis of ZnO and CeO2 NPs using the leaf extract of Rubia cordifolia L. The active principles present in the plant extract were liable for rapid reduction of Zn and Ce ions to metallic nanocrystals. ZnO and CeO2 NPs were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. ZnO and CeO2 NPs were partially agglomerated with a net-like structure. Biomedical activities of ZnO and CeO2 NPs were tested against MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells using MTT and reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantification assays. In treated cells, loss of cell membrane integrity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis was observed and it is well correlated with cellular damage immediately after induction. Overall, this study shed light on the anti-cancer potential of ZnO and CeO2 NPs on MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells through differential ROS production pathways, describing the potential role of greener synthesis.
KeywordsGreen synthesis Rubia cordifolia L. ZnO CeO2 SEM Anti-carcinomal activity
The authors acknowledge the authorities of Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India, and UGC, New Delhi (F. no. 39-368/2010(SR)) for providing necessary facilities to carry out this work. One of the authors (VSR) thank the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India, for the financial support through Dr. D.S. Kothari Post Doctoral Fellowship Scheme (no. F.4-2/2006 (BSR)/BL/13-14/0312, Dt.: 19 May 2014).
- Hameed ASH, Karthikeyan C, Sasikumar S, Kumar VS, Kumaresan S, Ravi G (2013) Impact of alkaline metal ions Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ on the structural, optical, thermal and antibacterial properties of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by the co-precipitation method. J Mater Chem B 1:5950–5962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jayaseelan C, Rahuman AA, Kirthi AV, Marimuthu S, Santhoshkumar T, Bagavan A, Gaurav K, Karthik L, Rao KVB (2012) Novel microbial route to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles using Aeromonas hydrophila and their activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Spectrochim Acta Mol Biomol Spectrosc 90:78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kadziński M, Cinelli M, Ciomek K, Coles SR, Nadagouda MN, Varma RS, Kirwan K (2016) Co-constructive development of a green chemistry-based model for the assessment of nanoparticles synthesis. Eur J Oper Res. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2016.10.019
- Khodke AS, Potale LV, Patole SM, Damle MC (2010) A validated isocratic RP-HPLC method determination for Rubiadin in the roots of Rubia cordifolia Linn. IntJ ChemTech Res 2(4):1956–1958Google Scholar
- Lebaschi S, Hekmati M, Veisi H (2017) Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles mediated by black tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) extract: catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction under ligand-free conditions. J Colloid Interface Sci 485:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu Z, Kiessling F, Gätjens J (2010) Advanced nanomaterials in multimodal imaging: design, functionalization, and biomedical applications. J Nanomater 2010:e894303Google Scholar
- Rani N, Goel A, Bhardwaj MK (2014) A case study on Rubia cordifolia in film coating of Triphala guggle ayurvedic tablets. Int J Pharm Sci Res 5:2927Google Scholar
- Scherrer P (1918) Bestimmung der Grösse und der inneren Struktur von Kolloidteilchen mittels Röntgenstrahlen. Nachr Ges Wiss Göttingen 26:98–100Google Scholar
- Shanmuganathan R, MubarakAli D, Prabakar D, et al (2017) An enhancement of antimicrobial efficacy of biogenic and ceftriaxone-conjugated silver nanoparticles: green approach. Environ Sci Pollut Res 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9367-9
- Sharma D, Sabela MI, Kanchi S, Mdluli PS, Singh G, Stenström TA, Bisetty K (2016) Biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using Jacaranda mimosifolia flowers extract: synergistic antibacterial activity and molecular simulated facet specific adsorption studies. J Photochem Photobiol 162:199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Verma A, Kumar B, Alam P et al (2016) Rubia cordifolia-a review on pharmaconosy and phytochemistry. Int J Pharm Sci Res 7:2720–2731Google Scholar