Evaluation of a field experiment for the conservation of a Magnolia stellata stand using clear-cutting
Magnolia stellata is a rare subcanopy tree species that grows in secondary forests in warm temperate zones. It is now endangered due to habitat degradation by vegetation succession. In an attempt to improve the habitat, a 30 m × 10 m plot (0.03 ha) was set up with all vegetation including M. stellata being clear-cut in January 2012. The number of sprouts increased for 1–2 years after clear-cutting and then gradually decreased or remained constant. Five years after clear-cutting, the numbers of individuals and stems, and the total basal area (BA), were 87.0, 165.5 and 3.2%, respectively, of the values before clear-cutting. BA was highest for Ilex pedunculosa, followed by M. stellata and Hydrangea paniculata. Some sprouted individuals of M. stellata produced flower buds in the second year after clear-cutting, and flowered and fruited in the spring and summer of the third year, respectively. The densities of potential canopy species were 18,533 ha−1 (height > 0.5 m) and 7,267 ha−1 (height > 1.2 m), vastly exceeding the value of the criterion for successful natural regeneration after clear-cutting of warm temperate forests in the region (3,000 ha−1). Based on this criterion, it is thus considered that the natural regeneration has reached completion. However, 45.1% (height > 0.5 m) and 95.5% (height > 1.2 m) of M. stellata individuals were regenerated by sprouting. Further research is needed into how individuals, regenerated from seedlings, develop and reach sexual maturity, and how successive generations change.
KeywordsNatural regeneration Satoyama Secondary forest Sprouting Warm temperate
We are grateful to members of the Forestry and Park and the Environment Sections of Tajimi City Government and the Tajimi City Cultural Properties Preservation Center for help with the field experiment. We thank Drs. Nao Yanagisawa and Michinari Matsushita for their helpful comments on the previous manuscript.
There is no funding related to this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
- Gifu Prefecture (2016) The 13th regional forest planning document of Hidagawa area. Gifu Prefecture, Gifu (in Japanese) Google Scholar
- Hosokawa K, Moribe S, Okada A, Higo M (2010) Degeneration mechanism of Magnolia stellata in the secondary stands in Chuno area, Gifu Prefecture. Chubu For Res 58:23–26 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
- Japan Association for Shidekobushi Conservation (1996) Wild stand of Shidekobushi (star magnolia) in Japan. Japan Association for Shidekobushi Conservation, Mizunami (in Japanese) Google Scholar
- Kameyama A (1996) Vegetation management of coppice: its ecosystem and management technology. Soft Science, Tokyo (in Japanese) Google Scholar
- Kawashima E, Hayashi S, Tubaki H (2002) Conservation of wild stand of Magnolia tomentosa: sprout regeneration of trees in the marsh. Chubu For Res 50:9–12 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
- Kimura T, Setsuko S, Tamaki I, Tomaru N (2009) Population dynamics of Magnolia stellata growing along the Yato River in Kaisho Forest. Chubu For Res 57:51–54 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
- Masaki T, Sato T, Sugita H, Tanaka N, Yagihashi T, Ogawa M, Tanouchi H, Tanaka H (2012) Density and size of saplings required for the successful regeneration after clearcutting of deciduous forests: an analysis based on the long-term monitoring data of Mt. Naeba experimental beech forest. J Jpn For Soc 94:17–23 (in Japanese with English abstract) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miyachi S, Ito S, Ohara M, Higo M (2015) Structure and dynamics of Magnolia stellata dominated stands in a spring-fed marsh in Tono area. Chubu For Res 63:71–74 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
- Nakagawa S (1996) From weed-tree forest of reviviscent. Soshinsha, Tokyo (in Japanese) Google Scholar
- Tabata H (2001) The future role of Satoyama woodlands in Japanese society. In: Yasuda Y (ed) Forest and civilisations. Lustre and Roli, Delhi, pp 155–162Google Scholar
- Tamaki I, Hoshino D, Setsuko S, Tomaru N, Yamamoto S (2005) Population structure of woody species in the Kaisho Forest. Chubu For Res 53:45–48 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
- Yabu S (2009) Satochi Satoyama Bunkaron. Theory of Satochi Satoyama culture, vol 2. Rural Culture Association, Tokyo (in Japanese) Google Scholar