Advertisement

Experimental Mechanics

, Volume 59, Issue 5, pp 659–667 | Cite as

A Novel In Situ Experiment to Investigate Wear Mechanisms in Biomaterials

  • N. Alderete
  • A. Zaheri
  • H.D. EspinosaEmail author
Article
  • 95 Downloads

Abstract

A number of experimental techniques have been used to characterize the mechanical properties and wear of biomaterials, from nanoindentation to scratch to atomic force microscopy testing. While all these experiments provide valuable information on the mechanics and functionality of biomaterials (e.g., animals’ teeth), they lack the ability to combine the measurement of force and sliding velocities with high resolution imaging of the processes taking place at the biomaterial-substrate interface. Here we present an experiment for the in situ scanning electron microscopy characterization of the mechanics of friction and wear of biomaterials with simultaneous control of mechanical and kinematic variables. To illustrate the experimental methodology, we report the wear of the sea urchin tooth, which exhibits a unique combination of architecture and material properties tailored to withstand abrasion loads in different directions. By quantifying contact conditions and changes in the tooth tip geometry, we show that the developed methodology provides a versatile and promising tool to investigate wear mechanisms in a variety of animal teeth accounting for microscale effects.

Keywords

Wear In situ experimentation Biomaterials 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from a Multi-University Research Initiative through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR-FA9550-15-1-0009). A special thank is due to J. McKittrick and M. Frank for helpful discussions during the development of the experimental set up and for providing sea urchin teeth.

Supplementary material

11340_2019_532_MOESM1_ESM.mp4 (23.8 mb)
ESM 1 (MP4 24392 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Dunlop JWC, Fratzl P (2010) Biological composites. Annu Rev Mater Res 40:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schoberl T, Jager IL (2006) Wet or dry - hardness, stiffness and wear resistance of biological materials on the micron scale. Adv Eng Mater 8(11):1164–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pontin MG, Moses DN, Waite JH, Zok FW (2007) A nonmineralized approach to abrasion-resistant biomaterials. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(34):13559–13564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moses DN, Pontin MG, Waite JH, Zok FW (2008) Effects of hydration on mechanical properties of a highly sclerotized tissue. Biophys J 94(8):3266–3272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Meng JX, Zhang PC, Wang ST (2016) Recent progress of abrasion-resistant materials: learning from nature. Chem Soc Rev 45(2):237–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Imbeni V, Kruzic JJ, Marshall GW, Marshall SJ, Ritchie RO (2005) The dentin-enamel junction and the fracture of human teeth. Nat Mater 4(3):229–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Walker A, Hoeck HN, Perez L (1978) Microwear of mammalian teeth as an Indicator of diet. Science 201(4359):908–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lawrence JM (2013) Sea urchins: biology and ecology, vol 38. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bak RPM (1994) Sea-urchin bioerosion on coral-reefs - place in the carbonate budget and relevant variables. Coral Reefs 13(2):99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ma Y, Weiner S, Addadi L (2007) Mineral deposition and crystal growth in the continuously forming teeth of sea urchins. Adv Funct Mater 17(15):2693–2700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sone ED, Weiner S, Addadi L (2007) Biomineralization of limpet teeth: a cryo-TEM study of the organic matrix and the onset of mineral deposition. J Struct Biol 158(3):428–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Erickson GM, Sidebottom MA, Curry JF, Ian Kay D, Kuhn-Hendricks S, Norell MA, Gregory Sawyer W, Krick BA (2016) Paleo-tribology: development of wear measurement techniques and a three-dimensional model revealing how grinding dentitions self-wear to enable functionality. Surface Topography-Metrology and Properties 4(2):024001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shaw JA, Macey DJ, Brooker LR, Clode PL (2010) Tooth use and wear in three iron-biomineralizing Mollusc species. Biol Bull 218(2):132–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lowenstam HA (1962) Magnetite in denticle capping in recent hhitons (Polyplacophora). Geol Soc Am Bull 73(4):435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gordon LM, Joester D (2011) Nanoscale chemical tomography of buried organic-inorganic interfaces in the chiton tooth. Nature 469(7329):194–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grunenfelder LK et al (2014) Stress and damage mitigation from oriented nanostructures within the Radular teeth of Cryptochiton stelleri. Adv Funct Mater 24(39):6093–6104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Weaver JC, Wang Q, Miserez A, Tantuccio A, Stromberg R, Bozhilov KN, Maxwell P, Nay R, Heier ST, DiMasi E, Kisailus D (2010) Analysis of an ultra hard magnetic biomineral in chiton radular teeth. Mater Today 13(1–2):42–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stefen C, Habersetzer J, Witzel U (2016) Biomechanical aspects of incisor action of beavers (Castor fiber L.). J Mammal 97(2):619–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Killian CE, Metzler RA, Gong Y, Churchill TH, Olson IC, Trubetskoy V, Christensen MB, Fournelle JH, de Carlo F, Cohen S, Mahamid J, Scholl A, Young A, Doran A, Wilt FH, Coppersmith SN, Gilbert PUPA (2011) Self-sharpening mechanism of the sea urchin tooth. Adv Funct Mater 21(4):682–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zok FW, Miserez A (2007) Property maps for abrasion resistance of materials. Acta Mater 55(18):6365–6371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bhushan B (1999) Principles and applications of tribology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhu XQ et al (2016) Multiple deformation mechanisms in the stone of a sea urchin tooth. Crystengcomm 18(30):5718–5723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zaheri A, Nguyan H, Restrepo D, Daly D, Lin Z, Frank M, McKittrick J, Espinosa HD (2019) In situ wear study reveals role of microstructure on self-sharpening mechanism in sea urchin teeth. SubmittedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang RZ, Addadi L, Weiner S (1997) Design strategies of sea urchin teeth: structure, composition and micromechanical relations to function. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 352(1352):469–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Theoretical and Applied Mechanics ProgramNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

Personalised recommendations