Characterizing the Interfacial Behavior of 2D Materials: a Review

  • K.M. LiechtiEmail author


Here we review how the interactions of graphene and other 2D materials with their growth and any target substrates have been characterized. Quantifying such interactions is particularly useful for modeling the transfer of the 2D materials to other substrates. It should also help model the assembly of structures made of 2D materials. Distinction is made between direct and indirect methods of extracting the traction-separation relations, which are the continuum representation of the functional form of the interactions between the 2D material and the substrate of interest. Salient features of traction-separation relations include the energy, strength and range of the interaction being considered. Adhesion and separation energies have been the hallmark of linearly elastic fracture mechanics characterizations in the past. The additional information on the strength and range of interactions provided by the measured traction-separation relations allows closer reference to the force fields associated with them and help with the identification of mechanisms. It should also spur theoretical developments to account for some of the interesting features that are being observed.


2D materials Interfacial behavior Traction-separation relations Cohesive zone modeling 



The author’s work on characterizing the interactions between 2D materials and substrates has been supported by the National Science Foundation through grants CMMI-1130261, EAGER 1444398, and Cooperative Agreement No. EEC-1160494. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. While there have been many collaborators, very fruitful interactions with Professors Deji Akinwande, Roger Bonnecaze, Rod Ruoff and Rui Huang and Dr. Seung Ryul Na (PhD student and Post-Doctoral Fellow) stand out.


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© Society for Experimental Mechanics 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for the Mechanics of Solids, Structures and Materials, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering MechanicsThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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