Advertisement

Nanoindentation of Fused Quartz at Loads Near the Cracking Threshold

  • B. A. Mound
  • G. M. PharrEmail author
Article
  • 41 Downloads

Abstract

Nanoindentation with triangular pyramidal indenters with centerline-to-face angles of 35.3°, 45°, 55°, 65.3° and 75° at loads in the range 1–500 mN was conducted on fused quartz to explore how cracks first form and develop in brittle materials during sharp indentation contact. The cracking behavior was documented using high resolution scanning electron microscopy and serial cross sectioning by focused ion beam milling. Results show that cracking is enhanced by sharper indenters and that there is a distinct threshold load below which no cracking is observed. The threshold increases rapidly with indenter angle. A series of indentations made at increasing load with the 45° indenter shows that the first cracks to form are relatively straight radials that emanate outward from the corners of the indentation. However, underneath the indent they do not connect to the hardness impression but rather terminate at what appears to be the elastic-plastic boundary. With increasing load, the radial cracks extend outward and downward, but at an intermediate load they branch to the sides beneath the hardness impression to form lateral cracks. Cracking does not appear to initiate from pre-existing flaws, but is generated from processes associated with plastic deformation beneath the indenter. Results are discussed in terms of prevailing ideas on the origin of the cracking threshold.

Keywords

Nanoindentation Cracking Brittle materials Fused quartz Contact mechanics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through the Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. NSF-DGE-1452154 (BAM) and through Grant No. DMR-174343 (GMP). Special thanks are due to Dr. John Dunlap for his guidance in using the Zeiss Auriga FIB/SEM and to Dr. Andrew Wereszczak for providing the fused quartz sample.

References

  1. 1.
    Lawn BR, Wilshaw TR (1975) Indentation fracture: principles and applications. J Mater Sci 10(6):1049–1081Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lawn BR, Fuller ER (1975) Equilibrium penny-like cracks in indentation fracture. J Mater Sci 10(12):2016–2024Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lawn BR, Swain MV (1975) Microfracture beneath point indentations in brittle solids. J Mater Sci 10(1):113–122Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hagan JT, Swain MV (1978) The origin of median and lateral cracks at plastic indents in brittle materials. J Phys D 11(15):2091–2102Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hagan JT (1979) Cone cracks around Vickers indentations in fused silica glass. J Mater Sci 14(2):462–466Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Evans AG, Wilshaw TR (1976) Quasi-static solid particle damage in brittle solids 1. Observations, analysis and implications. Acta Metall 24(10):939–956Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lawn BR (1975) Model for wear of brittle solids under fixed abrasive conditions. Wear 33(2):369–372Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hagan JT (1980) Shear deformation under pyramidal indentations in soda-lime glass. J Mater Sci 15:1417–1424Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pharr GM, Harding DS, Oliver WC (1993) Measurement of fracture toughness in thin films and small volumes using nanoindentation methods. In: Nastasi M, Parkin DM, Gleiter H (eds) NATO-ASI – Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of materials having ultra-fine microstructures. NATO ASI, Boston, pp 449–461Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harding DS, Pharr GM, Oliver WC (1995) Cracking during nanoindentation and its use in the measurement of fracture toughness. In: Baker SP, Ross CA, Townsend PH, Volkert CA, Borgeson P (eds) Thin films – stresses and mechanical properties V. Materials Research Society, Warrendale, pp 663–668Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pharr GM (1998) Measurement of mechanical properties by ultra-low load indentation. Mater Sci Engr A 253(1–2):151–159Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oliver WC, Pharr GM (1992) An improved technique for tetermining tardness and elastic-modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments. J Mater Res 7(6):1564–1583Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Evans AG, Charles EA (1976) Fracture toughness determinations by indentation. J Am Ceram Soc 59(7–8):371–372Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lawn BR, Evans AG, Marshall DB (1980) Elastic/plastic indentation damage in ceramics: the median/radial system. J Am Ceram Soc 63(9):574–581Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anstis GR, Chantikul P, Marshall DB, Lawn BR (1981) A critical evaluation of indentation techniques for measuring fracture toughness: I. direct crack measurements. J Am Ceram Soc 64(9):533–538Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marshall DB, Lawn BR, Evans AG (1982) Elastic/plastic indentation damage in ceramics: the lateral crack system. J Am Ceram Soc 65(11):561–566Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nihara K (1983) Indentation fracture toughness of brittle materials for palmqvist cracks. J Mater Sci Lett 2:221–223Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cuadrado N, Seuba J, Casellas D, Anglada M, Jiménez-Piqué E (2015) Geometry of nanoindentation cube-corner cracks observed by FIB tomography: implication for fracture estimation. J Eur Ceram Soc 35(10):2949–2955Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morris DJ, Myers SB, Cook RF (2004) Sharp probes of varying acuity: instrumented indentation and fracture behavior. J Mater Res 19(1):165–175Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Morris DJ, Cook RF (2004) In situ cube-corner indentation of soda-lime glass and fused silica. J Am Ceram Soc 87(8):1494–1501Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morris DJ, Cook RF (2005) Radial fracture during indentation by acute probes: I, description by an indentation wedging model. Int J Fract 136:237–264Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morris DJ, Vodnick AM, Cook RF (2005) Radial fracture during indentation by acute probes: II, experimental observations of cube-corner and Vickers indentation. Int J Fract 136:265–284Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jang J-I, Pharr GM (2008) Influence of indenter angle on cracking in Si and Ge during nanoindentation. Acta Mater 56:4458–4469Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yoshida S, Wada K, Fujimura T, Yamada A, Kato M, Matsuoka J, Soga N (2016) Evaluation of sinking-in and cracking behavior of soda-lime glass under varying angle of trigonal pyramid indenter. Frontiers in Materials 3:54Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yoshida S, Kato M, Yokota A, Sasaki S, Yamada A, Matsuoka J, Soga N, Kurjian CR (2016) Direct observation of indentation deformation and cracking in silicate glasses. J Mater Res 30(15):2291–2299Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gross TM (2012) Deformation and cracking behavior of glasses indented with diamond tips of various sharpness. J Non-Crystalline Solids 358:3445–3452Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arora A, Marshall DB, Lawn BR, Swain MV (1979) Indentation deformation/fracture of normal and anomalous glasses. J Non-Cryst Solids 31(3):415–428Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gross TM, Wu J, Baker DE, Price JJ, Yongsunthon R (2018) Crack-resistant glass with high shear band density. J Non-Crystalline Solids 494:13–20Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gross TM, Price JJ (2017) Vickers indentation cracking of ion-exchanged glasses: Quasi-static vs. dynamic contact. Frontiers in Mater 4:UNSP4Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Limbach R, Winterstein-Beckmann A, Dellith J, Moncke D, Wondraczek L (2015) Plasticity, crack initiation and defect resistance in alkali-borosilicate glasses: from normal to anomalous behavior. J Non-Crystalline Solids 417-418:15–27Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Keyvin V, Charleux L, Hin R, Guin J-P, Sangleboeuf J-C (2017) Mechanical behaviour of fully densified silica glass under Vickers indentation. Acta Mater 129:492–499Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cook RF, Pharr GM (1990) Direct observation and analysis of indentation cracking in glasses and ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 73(4):787–817Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bruns S, Johanns KE, Rehman HU, Pharr GM, Durst K (2017) Constitutive modeling of indentation cracking in fused silica. J Amer Ceram Soc 100(5):1928–1940Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bolshakov A, Pharr GM (1998) Influences of pile-up on the measurement of mechanical properties by load and depth sensing indentation techniques. J Mater Res 13(4):1049–1058Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shim S, Jang J-I, Pharr GM (2008) Extraction of flow properties of single-crystal silicon carbide by nanoindentation and finite-element simulation. Acta Mater 56(15):3824–3832Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lucas BN, Oliver WC (1999) Indentation power-law creep of high-purity indium. Metall and mater trans a – Phys Metall. Mater Sci 30(3):601–610Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Johnson KL (1985) Contact mechanics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgezbMATHGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Munroe PR (2009) The application of focused ion beam microscopy in the material sciences. Mater Charact 60(1):2–13Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chiang SS, Marshall DB, Evans AE (1982) The response of solids to elastic plastic indentation. I. Stresses and residual stresses. J Appl Phys 53(1):298–311Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chiang SS, Marshall DB, Evans AE (1982) The response of solids to elastic plastic indentation. II. Fracture initiation. J Appl Phys 53(1):311–317Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Feng G, Qu S, Huang Y, Nix WD (2007) An analytical expression for the stress field around an elastoplastic indentation/contact. Acta Mater 55(9):2929–2938Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Laugier MT (1985) Palmqvist crack extension and the center-loaded penny crack analogy. J Am Ceram Soc 68(2):C51–C52Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lawn BR, Evans AG (1977) A model for crack initiation in elastic/plastic indentation fields. J Mater Sci 12:2195–2199Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lankford J, Davidson DL (1979) The crack-initiation threshold in ceramic materials subject to elastic/plastic indentation. J Mater Sci 14:1662–1668Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hagan JT (1979) Micromechanics of crack nucleation during indentations. J Mater Sci 14:2975–2980Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stroh AN (1957) A theory of the fracture of metals. Adv Phys 6(24):418–465Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lathabai S, Rodel J, Dabbs T, Lawn BR (1991) Fracture mechanics model for subthreshold indentation flaws part I: equilibrium fracture. J Mater Sci 26(8):2157–2168Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lathabai S, Rodel J, Dabbs T, Lawn BR (1991) Fracture mechanics model for subthreshold indentation flaws part II: non-equilibrium fracture. J Mater Sci 26(8):2313–2321Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations