Diphenyl diselenide blunts swimming training on mitochondrial liver redox adaptation mechanisms of aged animals

  • Pamela C. Da Rosa
  • Diane D. Hartmann
  • Sílvio T. Stefanello
  • Thayanara C. da Silva
  • Martin T. B. Leite
  • Micaela B. Souza
  • José L. Cechella
  • Marlon R. Leite
  • Nelson R. De Carvalho
  • Félix A. A. Soares
  • Gustavo O. Puntel
  • Rômulo P. BarcelosEmail author
Original Article



Studies about antioxidant supplementation and exercises combined, especially at hepatic liver tissue, are rare and still controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate if the association between a recognized antioxidant compound—Diphenyl Diselenide ([(PhSe)2])—and training can reduce homogenate liver and liver mitochondria oxidative stress in old rats.


Old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (six animals per group): old-sedentary, old-sedentary [(PhSe)2] supplemented, old-trained, and old-trained [(PhSe)2] supplemented. Trained groups were submitted to swimming training sessions (3% of body weight, 20 min/day during 4 weeks); animals were fed daily with standard feed or standard feed supplemented with 1 ppm of [(PhSe)2] during 4 weeks.


Trained and trained + [(PhSe)2] groups decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, while only the trained group reduces GSSG production and increased GSH/GSSG ratio when compared to trained + [(PhSe)2]. Mitochondrial ROS production was elevated in control sedentary group, but only swimming training prevented its elevation. However, MnSOD activity was found elevated at trained + [(PhSe)2] rats when compared to the trained and [(PhSe)2] supplementation groups. Mitochondrial Δψm in trained + [(PhSe)2] was decreased compared to trained group, while ratio (III/IV states) was increased when compared to control sedentary.


We conclude that the combination of [(PhSe)2] and swimming training did not manifest synergic effect since it does not prevent the aging-induced hepatic oxidative stress generation, but blunted the induced-exercise adaptations, including at mitochondrial mechanisms.


Exercise Supplement Hepatic damage Oxidative stress Aging 



Diphenyl diselenide


Reduced glutathione


Oxidized glutathione


Manganese superoxide dismutase


Mitochondrial transmembrane electrical potential


Reduced dichlorofluorescein diacetate


Oxidized dichlorofluorescein




Potassium cyanide


Author contributions

All authors were involved in the development of this manuscript. As the corresponding author, Rômulo P. Barcelos oversaw the complete manuscript development. The study was designed by José L. Cechella; the training was designed and performed by Marlon R. Leite; data were collected and analyzed by Martin T. B. Leite, Micaela B. Souza, Thayanara C. da Silva and Nelson R. De Carvalho; data interpretation and article preparation were undertaken by Pamela C. Da Rosa, Diane D. Hartmann, and Sílvio T. Stefanello; the study conceived and supervisioned, and review of final version by Félix A. A. Soares, Gustavo O. Puntel. All authors have approved the final version of this manuscript.


This work was supported by Brazilian National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq), “Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior” (CAPES), “Programa de Apoio a Núcleos Emergentes” (PRONEM) MCTI/CNPq [Grant number 472669/2011-7, 475896/2012-2], and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior CAPES/PROEX [process number: 23038.005848/2018-31]. FAAS received a fellowship from CNPq. PCR, DDH, STS, JLC, MRL and NRC received a fellowship from CAPES.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The author declares that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pamela C. Da Rosa
    • 1
  • Diane D. Hartmann
    • 1
  • Sílvio T. Stefanello
    • 1
  • Thayanara C. da Silva
    • 1
  • Martin T. B. Leite
    • 1
  • Micaela B. Souza
    • 1
  • José L. Cechella
    • 1
  • Marlon R. Leite
    • 1
  • Nelson R. De Carvalho
    • 3
  • Félix A. A. Soares
    • 1
  • Gustavo O. Puntel
    • 1
  • Rômulo P. Barcelos
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica Toxicológica (PPGBTox), Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas (CCNE)Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM)Santa MariaBrazil
  2. 2.Programa de Pós-graduação em Bioexperimentação (PPGBioexp), Instituto de Ciências Biológicas (ICB)Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF)Passo FundoBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto Federal Farroupilha (IFF)Santo ÂngeloBrazil

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