Depressive symptoms, sleep quality, physical fitness, and fatigue among adult women with different obesity status

  • Christiana Evangelou
  • Nicos Kartakoullis
  • Marios Hadjicharalambous
  • George Aphamis
  • Maria Hadjimarkou
  • Giorgos K. Sakkas
  • Christoforos D. GiannakiEmail author
Original Article



The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms, sleep quality, objectively assessed physical fitness, and fatigue, among a sample of adult women with different obesity status.


One hundred and ninety-four volunteer adult women (36.1 ± 11.1 years) participated in the study. Based on body mass index (BMI), the participants were allocated into three groups: normal weight (n = 134), overweight (n = 32), and obese (n = 25). Physical fitness-related parameters such as aerobic fitness, flexibility, lower limb explosive strength, isometric handgrip strength, and sprint performance were assessed with a battery of field tests. Total body fat and trunk fat levels were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck depression inventory, sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburg sleep quality index, and fatigue levels were examined using the fatigue severity scale.


Obese women experienced a significantly worse score regarding depressive symptoms (p < 0.05). Similarly, the obese and overweight women were found to exhibit lower levels of aerobic fitness compared to women with normal BMI (p < 0.05). All examined body composition variables were shown to be inversely associated with the score on all physical fitness tests as well as with poor sleep, depressive symptoms, and fatigue levels (p < 0.05).


Depressive symptoms and performance on various physical fitness tests were found to be significantly impaired in obese and overweight adult women indicating the negative impact of increased body weight in health and well-being.


Aerobic fitness Total body fat Trunk fat Sleep quality 



We would like to thank all the women who volunteered for the purposes of the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the National Bioethical Committee (No.: EEBK/ΕΠ/2015/34) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

All volunteers were given a full explanation of the purpose and the procedures of the study and gave their written consent.


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© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Life and Health SciencesUniversity of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.Department of Sports ManagementUniversity of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus
  3. 3.Department of Social SciencesUniversity of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus
  4. 4.Department of Physical Education and Sport ScienceUniversity of ThessalyTrikalaGreece

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