Anaerobic training and its effects on sleep quality, state, and trait anxiety in collegiate athletes
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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different anaerobic training regimes on state anxiety, trait anxiety, and sleep quality among collegiate athletes.
Thirty-six collegiate soccer players fulfilling the eligibility criteria were randomly divided into three groups: complex training (n = 12; BMI 22.95 ± 1.76 kg/m2), contrast training (n = 12; BMI 22.05 ± 2.03 kg/m2), and control (n = 12; BMI 22.27 ± 1.44 kg/m2). Athletes from the complex or contrast group were trained for 6 weeks (3 days/week). The complex group performed four different exercises, each comprised of strength [80% of one repetition maximum (1RM)] and power components alternately. The contrast group performed the same strengthening exercises alternately at two different intensities (40% and 80% of 1RM). No supervised training was given to control group. All athletes were tested for their state anxiety, trait anxiety, and sleep quality before and after 6 weeks of training.
3 × 2 mixed ANOVA revealed significant difference in time effect (p ≤ 0.001) and time × group interaction (p ≤ 0.001) for state anxiety while non-significant difference was found in the group effect. There was no significant difference found between the groups for sleep quality and trait anxiety.
The results of the present study demonstrated that anaerobic exercises have a positive impact to reduce state anxiety. Therefore, coaches should utilize these findings and implement anaerobic exercises to the training regime for reduction of anxiety among athletes.
KeywordsPlyometrics Post-activation potentiation Complex training Contrast training agility Vertical jump
Rapid eye movement
Total sleep time
One repetition maximum
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
- HPA AXIS
The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, without which this work would not have been possible. They are grateful to the university soccer coaches for their support in recruiting players, and thankful to young soccer players who participated in the study. Sincere thanks to Irshad Ahmad (P.T.), Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, for his help with statistical analysis of the data.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Ethics Committee of Jamia Millia Islamia and trial registry with clinical trials registry of India (Indian Council of Medical Research; registration number-CTRI/2017/09/009631) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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