Effects of different heel heights on lower extremity joint loading in experienced and in-experienced users: a musculoskeletal simulation analysis
- 38 Downloads
This study examined the effects of different high-heeled footwear heights on lower extremity compressive joint loading and triceps-surae muscle–tendon kinematics during walking, using a musculoskeletal simulation-based approach, in both experienced and in-experienced high heel users.
The current investigation examined 12 experienced and 12 in-experienced high-heel wearers, walking in four different footwear (high heel, medium heel, low heel, and trainer). Walking kinematics were collected using an eight-camera motion capture system and kinetics via an embedded force plate. Lower extremity joint loading and triceps-surae muscle kinematics were explored using a musculoskeletal simulation approach.
Irrespective of experience, when wearing high heels of increasing height, compressive loading parameters at the medial tibiofemoral compartment and patellofemoral joint were significantly greater and exceeded the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). Furthermore, irrespective of wearers’ experience, the triceps-surae muscle–tendon units were placed in a shortened position when wearing high heels of increasing height, with the differences exceeding the MCID.
It can be concluded that heeled footwear increases the mechanical factors linked to the aetiology of degenerative joint osteoarthritis and chronic shortening of the triceps-surae muscle–tendon units. Therefore, the current investigation provides evidence that irrespective of experience, heeled footwear of increasing height may negatively influence female’s lower extremity musculoskeletal health.
KeywordsBiomechanics High heels Osteoarthritis Musculoskeletal
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
All participants provided written informed consent.
- 26.Sinclair J, Taylor PJ, Hobbs SJ (2013) Alpha level adjustments for multiple dependent variable analyses and their applicability—a review. Int J Sports Sci Eng 7:17–20Google Scholar
- 27.Sinclair J, Janssen J, Richards JD, Butters B, Taylor PJ, Hobbs SJ (2018) Effects of a 4-week intervention using semi-custom insoles on perceived pain and patellofemoral loading in targeted subgroups of recreational runners with patellofemoral pain. Phys Ther Sport 34:21–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Felson DT (2004) Risk factors for osteoarthritis: understanding joint vulnerability. Clin Orthop Relat Res 427:16–21. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.blo.0000144971.12731.a2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Heino JB, Powers CM (2002) Patellofemoral stress during walking in persons with and without patellofemoral pain. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:1582–1593. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000035990.28354.c6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Almonroeder TG, Benson LC, O’Connor KM (2015) Changes in patellofemoral joint stress during running with the application of a prefabricated foot orthotic. Int J Sports Phys Ther 10:967–972Google Scholar