Advertisement

Sport Sciences for Health

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 343–350 | Cite as

Ultra-short-term heart rate recovery after maximal exercise in elite European table tennis players

  • Zoran DjokicEmail author
  • Alessandro Moura Zagatto
Original Article
  • 88 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) responses during 10-s intervals over the first minute of recovery (i.e., ultra-short-term recovery) after table tennis-specific maximal exercise in elite and sub-elite players.

Methods

Twenty-five elite (22.8 ± 6.1 years) and 18 sub-elite (20.1 ± 2.2 years) table tennis players completed a specific table tennis test performing forehand offensive strokes against balls launched from a table tennis robot by an experienced coach at a rate of approximately 60 balls/min until exhaustion. Immediately upon exercise cessation, the participants were placed in a lying position for 60 s of HR recording.

Results

In general, both absolute heart rate and heart rate expressed as a percentage of the peak exercise heart rate were possibly to likely lower (50–92% likelihood of being different; magnitude-based inference), suggesting faster heart rate recovery, in elite players than in sub-elite players.

Conclusion

Therefore, we conclude that elite players have faster HR recovery than sub-elite players and that ultra-short-term recovery can be used to monitor training routines.

Keywords

Training Recovery Intermittent Endurance Autonomic nervous system 

Abbreviations

HR

Heart rate

ANS

Autonomic nervous system

HRV

Heart rate variability

HRR

Heart rate recovery

USTHRR

Ultra-short-term heart rate recovery

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethics approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its latter amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

All participants provided written, informed consent after being informed about the protocol and purpose of the study. It was approved by the Ethics Committee on Human Research of the Faculty of Sport and Tourism, Novi Sad, Serbia that personal rights were respected in this study.

References

  1. 1.
    Buchheit M (2014) Monitoring training status with HR measures: do all roads lead to Rome? Front Physiol 5:73.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2014.00073 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pichot V, Roche F, Gaspoz JM, Enjolras F, Antoniadis A, Minini P et al (2000) Relation between heart rate variability and training load in middle-distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:1729–1736.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200010000-00011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Buchheit M, Gindre C (2006) Cardiac parasympathetic regulation: respective associations with cardiorespiratory fitness and training load. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291:451–458.  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00008.2006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaikkonen P, Hynynen E, Mann T, Rusko H, Nummela A (2012) Heart rate variability is related to training load variables in interval running exercises. Eur J Appl Physiol 112:829–838.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2031-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sartor F, Vailati E, Valsecchi V, Vailati F, La Torre A (2013) Heart rate variability reflects training load and psychophysiological status in young elite gymnasts. J Strength Cond Res 10:2782–2790.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31828783cc CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Saboul D, Pialoux V, Hautier C (2013) The impact of breathing on HRV measurements: implications for the longitudinal follow-up of athletes. Eur J Sport Sci 13:534–542.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2013.767947 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dong J (2016) The role of heart rate variability in sports physiology. Exp Ther Med 11(5):1531–1536.  https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2016.3104 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Borresen J, Lambert MI (2008) Autonomic control of heart rate during and after exercise: measurements and implications for monitoring training status. Sports Med 38:633–646CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Otsuki T, Maeda S, Iemitsu M, Saito Y, Tanimura Y, Sugawara J, Ajisaka R, Miyauchi T (2007) Postexercise heart rate recovery accelerates in strength-trained athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):365–370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Imai K, Sato H, Hori M, Kusuoka H, Ozaki H, Yokoyama H, Takeda H, Inoue M, Kamada T (1994) Vagally mediated heart rate recovery after exercise is accelerated in athletes but blunted in patients with chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 24(6):1529–1535CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ostojic SM, Stojanovic M, Calleja-Gonzales J (2011) Ultra short-term heart rate recovery after maximal exercise: relations to aerobic power in sportsmen. Chin J Physiol 54(2):105–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boullosa DA, Abreu L, Nakamura FY, Muñoz VE, Domínguez E, Leicht AS (2013) Cardiac autonomic adaptations in elite Spanish soccer players during preseason. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 8(4):400–409CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Padulo J, Pizzolato F, Tosi Rodrigues S, Migliaccio GM, Attene G, Curcio R, Zagatto AM (2016) Task complexity reveals expertise of table tennis players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 56(1–2):149–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zagatto AM, Morel E, Gobatto CA (2010) Physiological responses and characteristics of table tennis matches determined in official tournaments. J Strength Cond Res 24(4):942–949.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cb7003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zagatto AM, Leite JV, Papoti M, Beneke R (2016) Energetics of table tennis and table tennis-specific exercise testing. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 11(8):1012–1017.  https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0746 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zagatto AM, Kondric M, Knechtle B, Nikolaidis PT, Sperlich B (2018) Energetic demand and physical conditioning of table tennis players. A study review. J Sports Sci 36(7):724–731.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1335957 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zagatto AM, Gobatto CA (2012) Relationship between anaerobic parameters provided from MAOD and critical power model in specific table tennis test. Int J Sports Med 33(8):613–620.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1304648 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zagatto AM, Miranda MF, Gobatto CA (2011) Critical power concept adapted for the specific table tennis test: comparisons between exhaustion criteria, mathematical modeling, and correlation with gas exchange parameters. Int J Sports Med 32(7):503–510.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1270470 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zagatto AM, Papoti M, dos Reis IGM, Beck WR, Gobatto CA (2014) Analysis of cardiopulmonary and metabolic variables measured during laboratory and sport-specific incremental tests for table tennis performance prediction. Sci Sports 29(2):62–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2013.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buchheit M, Simpson MB, Al Haddad H, Bourdon PC, Mendez-Villanueva A (2012) Monitoring changes in physical performance with heart rate measures in young soccer players. Eur J Appl Physiol 112(2):711–723.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2014-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kondrič M, Zagatto AM, Sekulić D (2013) the physiological demands of table tennis: a review. J Sports Sci Med 12(3):362–370PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Djokic Z (2004) Heart rate monitoring of table tennis players. In: Lees A, Kahn JF, Maynard W (eds) Science and racket sports III. Routledge, Paris, pp 21–22Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sperlich B, Koehler K, Holmberg HC, Zinner C, Mester J (2011) Table tennis: cardiorespiratory and metabolic analysis of match and exercise in elite junior national players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 6(2):234–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ostojic SM, Markovic G, Calleja-Gonzalez J, Jakovljevic DG, Vucetic V, Stojanovic MD (2010) Ultra short-term heart rate recovery after maximal exercise in continuous versus intermittent endurance athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 108:1055–1059.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1313-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Buchheit M, Laursen PB, Ahmaidi S (2007) Parasympathetic reactivation after repeated sprint exercise. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 293:133–141.  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00062.2007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Buchheit M, Al Haddad H, Millet GP, Lepretre PM, Newton M, Ahmaidi S (2009) Cardiorespiratory and cardiac autonomic responses to 30–15 intermittent fitness test in team sport players. J Strength Cond Res 23:93–100.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818b9721 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Buchheit M, Millet GP, Parisy A, Pourchez S, Laursen PB, Ahmaidi S (2008) Supramaximal training and postexercise parasympathetic reactivation in adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:362–371.  https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31815aa2ee CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lamberts RP, Swart J, Capostagno B, Noakes TD, Lambert MI (2009) Heart rate recovery as a guide to monitor fatigue and predict changes in performance parameters. Scand J Med Sci Sports.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00977.x (Epub ahead of print)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ostojic SM, Stojanovic M, Calleja-Gonzalez J, Jourkesh M, Idrizovic K (2014) Ultra short-term heart rate after exercise: new tool to monitor recovery in athletes? | Frequenza cardiaca a brevissimo termine dopo sforzo: Nuovo strumento per monitorare il recupero negli atleti?|. Med Dello Sport 67:109–117Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Girard O, Millet JP (2008) Neuromuscular Fatigue in Racquet Sports. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 20:161–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmr.2008.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Leite JV, Barbieri FA, Miyagi W, de Souza Malta E, Zagatto AM (2017) Influence of game evolution and the phase of competition on temporal game structure in high-level table tennis tournaments. J Hum Kinet 55:55–63.  https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2016-0048 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Giles D, Draper N, Neil W (2016) Validity of the Polar V800 heart rate monitor to measure RR intervals at rest. Eur J Appl Physiol 116:563–571.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3303-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hopkins W, Marshall S, Batterham A, Hanin J (2009) Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:3–13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Milioni F, Leite JVdM, Beneke R, de Poli RAB, Papoti M, Zagatto AM (2018) Table tennis playing styles require specific energy systems demands. PLoS One 13(7):e0199985.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199985 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Buchheit M, Papelier Y, Laursen PB, Ahmaidi S (2007) Noninvasive assessment of cardiac parasympathetic function: postexercise heart rate recovery or heart rate variability? Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 293:8–10.  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00335.2007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barak OF, Ovcin ZB, Jakovljevic DG, Lozanov-Crvenkovic Z, Brodie DA, Grujic NG (2011) Heart rate recovery after submaximal exercise in four different recovery protocols in male athletes and non-athletes. J Sports Sci Med 10(2):369–375PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bosquet L, Merkari S, Arvisais D, Aubert AE (2008) Is heart rate a convenient tool to monitor over-reaching? A systematic review of the literature. Br J Sports Med 42(9):709–714.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.042200 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Sport and TourismUniversity EDUCONSNovi SadSerbia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Physiology and Sport Performance (LAFIDE)Sao Paulo State University, UNESP, School of SciencesBauruBrazil

Personalised recommendations