Sport Sciences for Health

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 343–350 | Cite as

Ultra-short-term heart rate recovery after maximal exercise in elite European table tennis players

  • Zoran DjokicEmail author
  • Alessandro Moura Zagatto
Original Article



The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) responses during 10-s intervals over the first minute of recovery (i.e., ultra-short-term recovery) after table tennis-specific maximal exercise in elite and sub-elite players.


Twenty-five elite (22.8 ± 6.1 years) and 18 sub-elite (20.1 ± 2.2 years) table tennis players completed a specific table tennis test performing forehand offensive strokes against balls launched from a table tennis robot by an experienced coach at a rate of approximately 60 balls/min until exhaustion. Immediately upon exercise cessation, the participants were placed in a lying position for 60 s of HR recording.


In general, both absolute heart rate and heart rate expressed as a percentage of the peak exercise heart rate were possibly to likely lower (50–92% likelihood of being different; magnitude-based inference), suggesting faster heart rate recovery, in elite players than in sub-elite players.


Therefore, we conclude that elite players have faster HR recovery than sub-elite players and that ultra-short-term recovery can be used to monitor training routines.


Training Recovery Intermittent Endurance Autonomic nervous system 



Heart rate


Autonomic nervous system


Heart rate variability


Heart rate recovery


Ultra-short-term heart rate recovery


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethics approval

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its latter amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

All participants provided written, informed consent after being informed about the protocol and purpose of the study. It was approved by the Ethics Committee on Human Research of the Faculty of Sport and Tourism, Novi Sad, Serbia that personal rights were respected in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Sport and TourismUniversity EDUCONSNovi SadSerbia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Physiology and Sport Performance (LAFIDE)Sao Paulo State University, UNESP, School of SciencesBauruBrazil

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