Advertisement

Sport Sciences for Health

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 35–42 | Cite as

Cardiovascular benefits independent of body mass loss in overweight individuals after exercise program

  • Irantzu IbañezEmail author
  • Montserrat Otero
  • Susana M Gil
Original Article
  • 66 Downloads

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes which occurred after a supervised aerobic exercise program in the blood pressure (BP), cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass in overweight individuals. Sixty-one individuals (65.6 ± 6.5 years, 31.16 ± 4.76 kg/m2) performed an exercise program consisting of 1 h sessions of aerobic exercises, three times/week for 6 months. Resting systolic and diastolic BP, cardiorespiratory fitness [6-min walk test (6MWT)] and body mass were measured three times; at baseline (T0), after 3 months (T1) and after 6 months (T2). Results showed significant (p < 0.05) changes in systolic BP, diastolic BP and the 6MWT at T2. Small and statistically no significant changes were observed in body mass. Greater significant changes were observed in BP measures and the 6MWT at T1 compared to measurements at T2. A significant relationship between changes in resting systolic BP and diastolic BP (r = 0.47) was found but not between changes in other variables. It could be concluded that a 6-month exercise program based on aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors regardless of body mass loss. These findings highlight the importance of lifestyle interventions focusing on increasing physical activity rather than focusing on body mass loss alone.

Keywords

Exercise program Physical activity Cardiovascular benefits Obesity Body mass loss 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study complies with the ethical standards of the Ethics Committee of the University of the Basque Country on Research on Human subjects and performed according to the ethical standards of the 1964 Helsinki Declaration.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization (2011) Global status report on non-communicable diseases 2010. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Warburton D, Charlesworth S, Ivey A, Nettlefold L, Bredin S (2010) A systematic review of the evidence for Canada’s physical activity guidelines for adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 7:n/a–39.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-7-39 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pedersen B, Saltin B (2006) Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease. Scand J Med Sci Sports 16(Suppl 1):3–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cecchini M, Sassi F, Lauer J, Lee Y, Guajardo-Barron V, Chisholm D (2010) Chronic diseases: chronic diseases and development 3: tackling of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and obesity: health effects and cost-effectiveness. The Lancet 376(9754):1775–1784. http://search.proquest.com/docview/808588665?accountid=17248. Accessed 25 May 2016
  5. 5.
    Gaesser G, Angadi S, Sawyer B (2011) Exercise and diet, independent of weight loss, improve cardiometabolic risk profile in overweight and obese individuals. Phys Sportsmed 39(2):87–97.  https://doi.org/10.3810/psm.2011.05.1898 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jakicic J, Otto A (2005) Physical activity considerations for the treatment and prevention of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 82(1 Suppl):226S–229SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Slentz C, Duscha B, Johnson J, Ketchum K, Aiken L, Samsa G (2004) Effects of the amount of exercise on body weight, body composition, and measures of central obesity: STRRIDE-a randomized controlled study. Arch Intern Med 164(1):31–39.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.164.1.31 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beavers K, Beavers D, Nesbit B, Ambrosius W, Marsh A, Nicklas B (2014) Effect of an 18-month physical activity and weight loss intervention on body composition in overweight and obese older adults. Obesity 22(2):325–331.  https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20607 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fogelholm M, Stallknecht B, Van Baak M (2006) ECSS position statement: exercise and obesity. Eur J Sport Sci 6(1):15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cornelissen V, Smart N (2013) Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc.  https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.112.004473 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Paoli A, Pacelli Q, Moro T, Marcolin G, Neri M, Battaglia G (2013) Effects of high-intensity circuit training, low-intensity circuit training and endurance training on blood pressure and lipoproteins in middle-aged overweight men. Lipids Health Dis.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-12-131 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Soroush A, Der Ananian C, Ainsworth B, Belyea M, Poortvliet E, Swan P (2013) Effects of a 6-month walking study on blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness in U.S. and swedish adults: ASUKI step study. Asian J Sports Med 4(2):114–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ross R, Bradshaw A (2009) The future of obesity reduction: beyond weight loss. Nat Rev Endocrinol 5(6):319–325.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2009.78 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sousa N, Mendes R, Abrantes C, Sampaio J, Oliveira J (2014) Effectiveness of combined exercise training to improve functional fitness in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Geriatr Gerontol Int 14(4):892–898.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12188 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heitmann B, Hills A, Frederiksen P, Ward L (2009) Obesity, leanness, and mortality: effect modification by physical activity in men and women. Obesity 17(1):136–142.  https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2008.479 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rikli R, Jones C (2013) Senior fitness test manual, 2nd edn. Human Kinetics, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    American College of Sports Medicine (2014) ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 9th edn. American College of Sports Medicine, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Field A (2013) Discovering statistic using IBM SPSS statistics, 4th edn. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wilmore J (2001) Dose-response: variation with age, sex, and health status. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33(suppl6):622–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Skrypnik D, Bogdanski P, Madry E, Karolkiewicz J, Ratajczak M, Krysciak J (2015) Effects of endurance and endurance strength training on body composition and physical capacity in women with abdominal obesity. Obes Facts 8(3):175–187.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000431002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Collier S, Kanaley J, Carhart R, Frechette V, Tobin M (2008) Effect of 4 weeks of aerobic or resistance exercise training on arterial stiffness, blood flow and blood pressure in pre- and stage-1 hypertensives. J Hum Hypertens 22:678–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nemoto K, Gen-no H, Masuki S, Okazaki K, Nose H (2207) Effects of high-intensity interval walking training on physical fitness and blood pressure in middle aged and older people. Mayo Clin Proc 82(7):803–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cox K, Burke V, Morton A, Gillam H, Beilin L, Puddey I (2001) Long-term effects of exercise on blood pressure and lipids in healthy women aged 40–65 years: the sedentary women exercise adherence trial (SWEAT). J Hypertens 19(10):1733–1743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pescatello L, Franklin B, Fagard R (2004) American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(3):533–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Manfredini F, Malagoni A, Mandini S, Boari B, Felisatti M, Zamboni P (2009) Sport therapy for hypertension: Why, how, and how much? Angiology 60(2):207–216.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0003319708316012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rossi A, Dikareva A, Bacon S, Daskalopoulou S (2012) The impact of physical activity on mortality in patients with high blood pressure: a systematic review. J Hypertens 30(7):1277–1288.  https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283544669 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Santana M, de Lira C, Passos G, Santos C, Silva A, Yoshida C (2012) Is the six-minute walk test appropriate for detecting changes in cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy elderly men? J Sci Med Sport/Sports Med Aust 15(3):259–265.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.11.249 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mian O, Thom J, Ardigo L, Morse C, Narici M, Minetti A (2007) Effect of a 12-month physical conditioning programme on the metabolic cost of walking in healthy older adults. Eur J Appl Physiol 100(5):499–505.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-006-0141-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hallage T, Krause M, Haile L, Miculis C, Nagle E, Reis R (2010) The effects of 12 weeks of step aerobics training on functional fitness of elderly women. J Strength Cond Res/Natl Strength Cond Assoc 24(8):2261–2266.  https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181ddacc6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Toraman N, Erman A, Agyar E (2004) Effects of multicomponent training on functional fitness in older adults. J Aging Phys Activity 12(4):538–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Perera S, Mody S, Woodman R, Studenski S (2006) Meaningful change and responsiveness in common physical performance measures in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 54(5):743–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rasekaba T, Lee A, Naughton M, Williams T, Holland A (2009) The six-minute walk test: a useful metric for the cardiopulmonary patient. Int Med J 39(8):495–501.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-5994.2008.01880.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bateman L, Slentz C, Willis L, Shields A, Piner L, Bales C (2011) Comparison of aerobic versus resistance exercise training effects on metabolic syndrome (from the studies of a targeted risk reduction intervention through defined exercise STRRIDE-AT/RT. Am J Cardiol 108(6):838–844.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.04.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Church T, Blair S, Cocreham S, Johannsen N, Johnson W, Kramer K (2010) Effects of aerobic and resistance training on hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 304(20):2253–2262.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1710 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Willis L, Slentz C, Bateman L, Shields A, Piner L, Bales C, Kraus W (2012) Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults. J Appl Physiol 113(12):1831–1837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sigal R, Kenny G, Boulé N, Wells G (2007) Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Int Med 147(6): 357–369. http://search.proquest.com/docview/222201705?accountid=17248
  37. 37.
    Park S, Park J, Kwon Y, Kim H, Yoon M, Park H (2003) The effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on abdominal fat in obese middle-aged women. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Hum Sci 22(3):129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Davidson L, Hudson R, Kilpatrick K (2009) Effects of exercise modality on insulin resistance and functional limitation in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 169(2):122–131.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2008.558 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    King N, Hopkins M, Caudwell P, Stubbs R, Blundell J (2008) Individual variability following 12 weeks of supervised exercise: identification and characterization of compensation for exercise-induced weight loss. Int J Obes 32(1):177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Swift D, Johannsen N, Lavie C, Earnest C, Church T (2014) The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 56(4):441–447.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2013.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sweet S, Fortier M (2010) Improving physical activity and dietary behaviours with single or multiple health behaviour interventions? A synthesis of meta-analyses and reviews. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7:1720–1743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Winnicki M, Bonso E, Dorigatti F, Longo D, Zaetta V, Mattarei M (2006) Effect of body weight loss on blood pressure after 6 years of follow-up in stage 1 hypertension. Am J Hypertens 19(11):1103–1109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjhyper.2006.04.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mandai N, Akazawa K, Hara N, Ide Y, Ide K, Dazai U (2015) Body weight reduction results in favorable changes in blood pressure, serum lipids, and blood sugar in middle-aged japanese persons: a 5-year interval observational study of 26,824 cases. Glob J Health Sci 7(5):43204.  https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v7n5p159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lavie C, McAuley P, Church T, Milani R, Blair S (2014) Obesity and cardiovascular diseases: Implications regarding fitness, fatness, and severity in the obesity paradox. J Am Coll Cardiol 63(14):1345–1354.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2014.01.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Barry V, Baruth M, Beets M, Durstine J, Liu J, Blair S (2014) Fitness vs. fatness on all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 56(4):382–390.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2013.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Charasonney O, Després J (2010) Disease prevention—should we target obesity or sedentary lifestyle? Nat Rev Cardiol 7:468–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Semlitsch T, Jeitler K, Hemkens L, Horvath K, Nagele E, Schuermann C (2013) Increasing physical activity for the treatment of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med (Auckland NZ) 43(10):1009–1023.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0065-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Micallef C (2015) Critical analysis: a vital element in healthcare research. Int J Behav Healthc Res 5(1/2):104–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irantzu Ibañez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Montserrat Otero
    • 1
  • Susana M Gil
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Education and SportUniversity of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)Vitoria-GasteizSpain
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine and NursingUniversity of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU)LeioaSpain

Personalised recommendations