Maternal chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats causes early atherosclerosis with increased expression of Caveolin-1 in offspring
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The objective of our research was to explore the effects of maternal and postpartum chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) exposure on atherosclerosis in adulthood offspring of rats, and the role of Caveolin-1 in the course.
Sixteen rats were assigned to two groups (n = 8), maternal normoxia and CIH group. After delivery, two male pups per litter were selected and breastfed for 1 month, which then randomly received postpartum normoxia or CIH. Thus, 4 groups were created as follows (n = 8): (1) maternal normoxia and postpartum normoxia group, (2) maternal CIH and postpartum normoxia group, (3) maternal CIH and postpartum CIH group, and (4) maternal normoxia and postpartum CIH group. The offspring were weighed at birth and weaning. After the duration of 12-week experiment, morphological changes, the expression of Caveolin-1 and NF-κB p65 in the aorta were detected.
Maternal CIH resulted in significantly lower body weight and thicker intima (P < 0.001). CIH upregulated the expression of Caveolin-1 and NF-κB p65 significantly (P < 0.01). There was a synergistic effect of maternal and postpartum CIH on the thickening of intima (P < 0.05), also on the expression of Caveolin-1 and NF-κB p65 (P < 0.01).
The results demonstrate that maternal CIH exposure causes a postpartum catch-up growth and early atherosclerotic changes followed by upregulating Caveolin-1 expression. Besides, maternal CIH enhances the atherosclerotic changes caused by postpartum CIH. Oxidative stress probably implicates in above effects.
KeywordsObstructive sleep apnea Chronic intermittent hypoxia Atherosclerosis NF-κB p65 Caveolin-1 Rats
This works was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Number 81770016), Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province (Number 2015J01445), Young people training project from Fujian Province Health System (Number2014JQNJC20), Fund from Quanzhou Science and Technology Bureau (Number2013Z55), and Quanzhou Science and Technology Project (Number 2018N028S).
Compliance with ethical standards
All experiments were conducted in accordance with National Institutes of Health guidelines. The study protocols were approved by the Standing Committee on Ethics and Animal Experimentation at Fujian Medical University.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The animal experiments were performed after approval from the Standing Committee on Ethics and Animal Experimentation at Fujian Medical University.
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