[124I]CLR1404 PET/CT in High-Grade Primary and Metastatic Brain Tumors

  • Lance T. HallEmail author
  • Benjamin Titz
  • Nishanta Baidya
  • Anja G. van der Kolk
  • H. Ian Robins
  • Mario Otto
  • Scott B. Perlman
  • Jamey P. Weichert
  • John S. Kuo
Research Article



There is a continuous search for imaging techniques with high sensitivity and specificity for brain tumors. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has shown promise, though many PET agents either have a low tumor specificity or impractical physical half-lives. [124I]CLR1404 is a small molecule alkylphosphocholine analogue that is thought to bind to plasma membrane lipid rafts and has shown high tumor-to-background ratios (TBR) in a previous pilot study in brain tumor patients. This study attempts to define the clinical value of [124I]CLR1404 PET/CT (aka CLR124).


Adult patients with new or suspected recurrence of high-grade primary or metastatic brain tumors (N = 27) were injected with [124I]CLR1404 followed by PET/CT at 6, 24, and 48 h. Standard uptake values (SUV) and TBR values were calculated for all time points. Uptake of [124I]CLR1404 was qualitatively assessed, compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and correlated with clinical outcome. Final diagnosis (N = 25) was established based on surgically resected tissue or long-term follow-up.


Positive uptake with high TBR was detected in all but one patient with a final diagnosis of primary/recurrent brain tumor (12/13) and in less than half of patients with treatment-related changes (5/12). Concordance between [124I]CLR1404 uptake and contrast enhancement on MRI was seen in < 40 %, with no concordance between T2-hyperintensities and uptake. No significant difference in overall outcome was found between patients with and without [124I]CLR1404 uptake.


The uptake pattern in these patients suggests a very high sensitivity of [124I]CLR1404 PET/CT for diagnosing tumor tissue; however, tumor specificity needs to be further defined. Relative lack of concordance with standard MRI characteristics suggests that [124I]CLR1404 PET/CT provides additional information about brain tumors compared to MRI alone, potentially improving clinical decision-making.

Key words

CLR1404 CLR124 Alkyl phosphocholine analogue Brain tumor PET Molecular imaging 



We gratefully acknowledge our dedicated clinical study coordinators (Diana Trask, Nick Anger, Lori Hayes, and Belinda Buehl-Soppe), PET study coordinator (Christine Jaskowiak), statistician (Kaitlin Woo), and of course our patient volunteers who selflessly gave their time and trust to participate in our studies.


This study was funded by grants UL1TR000427, P30CA014520, and R01CA158800.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

All authors declare that he/she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© World Molecular Imaging Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lance T. Hall
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Benjamin Titz
    • 1
  • Nishanta Baidya
    • 1
  • Anja G. van der Kolk
    • 1
  • H. Ian Robins
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Mario Otto
    • 6
  • Scott B. Perlman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jamey P. Weichert
    • 1
    • 2
  • John S. Kuo
    • 2
    • 3
    • 7
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Wisconsin Hospitals and ClinicsMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Carbone Cancer CenterUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Human OncologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  5. 5.Department of MedicineUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  6. 6.Department of PediatricsUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  7. 7.Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  8. 8.Department of NeurosurgeryThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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