NMR metabolic profiling of follicular fluid for investigating the different causes of female infertility: a pilot study
Several metabolomics studies have correlated follicular fluid (FF) metabolite composition with oocyte competence to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy but there is a scarcity of research examining the metabolic effects of various gynaecological diseases.
In this study we aimed to analyze and correlate the metabolic profile of FF from women who were following in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments with their different infertility pathologies.
We selected 53 women undergoing IVF who were affected by: tubal diseases, unexplained infertility, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). FF of the study participants was collected at the time of oocytes retrieval. Metabolomic analysis of FF was performed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
FF presents some significant differences in various infertility pathologies. Although it was not possible to discriminate between FF of control participants and women with tubal diseases and unexplained infertility, comparison of FF metabolic profile from control women with patients with endometriosis and PCOS revealed significant differences in some metabolites that can be correlated to the causes of infertility.
NMR-based metabolic profiling may be successfully applied to find diagnostic biomarkers for PCOS and endometriosis and it might be also used to predict oocyte developmental potential and subsequent outcome.
KeywordsMetabolomics Follicular fluid NMR spectroscopy Gynaecological pathologies Infertility factors In vitro fertilization (IVF)
SS, AI, and AO designed the study. AI selected the participants and executed oocyte retrieval. DP executed oocyte retrieval. AF identified oocytes in follicular fluid and executed their fertilization. PC selected the follicular fluids to be used for metabolomic analyses. CM performed the analysis of NMR data and multivariate analysis. LV run the NMR experiments. FC performed statistical analysis. AO, AI, and CM were responsible for conducting the study and writing the manuscript which was critically discussed, edited and approved by all co-authors.
The authors received no financial support for this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Research involving human rights
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional, national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments.
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