Metabonomic investigation of rat tissues following intravenous administration of cyanidin 3-glucoside at a physiologically relevant dose
- 553 Downloads
Anthocyanins, which are dietary flavonoids occurring in fruit and beverages, are reported to have a beneficial impact on a wide range of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and neoplastic diseases. To understand the underlying mechanisms, a biochemical description of the changes in cell metabolism caused by anthocyanins can be provided by metabonomic studies. The aim of this study was to detect changes in the profiles of metabolites induced by the administration of cyanidin 3-glucoside to adult male rats. A physiological dose of cyanidin 3-glucoside was intravenously administered, and blood, kidneys and liver were collected after 5 min. The tissues were rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen, stored briefly at −80 °C, homogenised under cryogenic conditions and extracted in ice-cold methanol:water (95:5, v/v). The extracts were then analysed using UPLC/QTOF-MS. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data was performed using orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Discriminating variables were compared to the in-house standard database, considering matches in retention times, parent mass ions, mass fragment patterns and isotopic patterns. This metabolomic approach made it possible to identify as many as eight metabolite markers, including bile acids, reduced and oxidised glutathione and some lipids. Such changes suggest that cyanidin 3-glucoside has a major effect on tissue antioxidant status as well as on energy and glucose metabolism.
KeywordsAnthocyanins Cyanidin 3-glucoside Metabolomics Metabonomics Wistar rats Ultra performance liquid chromatography Quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry
The authors gratefully thank Domenico Masuero for his expert assistance in MS analysis. The study was carried out with support of: the Slovenian Research Agency (project: Z4-2280), the ADP2010 MetaQuality projects, funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento, Italy and the “Integrated and Sustainable Vine-Wine Management (GISVI)” project (L.R. 26/2010 – Support for the production and exploitation of knowledge) funded by the Autonomous Region of Friuli Venezia Giulia.
- Ali, K., Iqbal, M., Korthout, H., Maltese, F., Fortes, A., Pais, M., et al. (2012). NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics as a tool for anti-TNFα activity screening in crude extracts of grapes and other berries. Metabolomics. doi: 10.1007/s11306-012-0406-8.
- Attilio, R. (2007). Absorption, transport, and tissue delivery of vitamin E. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 28(5–6), 423–436.Google Scholar
- Jackson, J. E. (1991). User’s guide to principal components. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Römisch-Margl, W., Prehn, C., Bogumil, R., Röhring, C., Suhre, K., & Adamski, J. (2011). Procedure for tissue sample preparation and metabolite extraction for high-throughput targeted metabolomics. Metabolomics, 1–10. doi: 10.1007/s11306-011-0293-4.
- Spormann, T. M., Albert, F. W., Rath, T., Dietrich, H., Will, F., Stockis, J.-P., et al. (2008). Anthocyanin/polyphenolic-rich fruit juice reduces oxidative cell damage in an intervention study with patients on hemodialysis. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 17(12), 3372–3380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, A. R. S. (2007). USDA Database for the flavonoid content of selected Foods, Release 2.1. Accessed May 4, 2011, from http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/Data/Flav/Flav02-1.pdf.
- U.S. Department of Health & Human services, & U.S. Department of Agriculture (2010). Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Accessed Oct 3, 2011 from http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf.
- Villas-Bôas, S. G. (2006). Sampling and sample preparation. In S. G. Villas-Bôas, U. Roessner, M. A. E. Hansen, J. Smedsgaard, & J. Nielsen (Eds.), Metabolome analysis: An introduction (pp. 39–82). New Yersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
- WHO (2004). Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Accessed September 2, 2011, from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/strategy/eb11344/strategy_english_web.pdf.
- Wiklund, S., Johansson, E., Sjostrom, L., Mellerowicz, E. J., Edlund, U., Shockcor, J. P., et al. (2008). Visualization of GC/TOF-MS-based metabolomics data for identification of biochemically interesting compounds using OPLS class models. Analytical Chemistry, 80(1), 115–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wold, H. (1985). Partial least squares. In S. Kotz & N. L. Johnson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of statistical sciences (vol. 6, pp. 581–591). New York: Willey.Google Scholar