Mapping quantitative trait loci for growth and wood property traits in Cryptomeria japonica across multiple environments
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Genomic regions which affected tree growth and wood property traits were investigated in the major plantation tree of Japan, Cryptomeria japonica, in three replicated common garden experiments planted in contrasting environments in Kyushu and Honshu, Japan. Phenotypic traits measured were stem diameter at breast height, tree height, wood strength (Young’s modulus), heartwood density, sapwood density, heartwood moisture content, and sapwood moisture content. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified an average of 53 QTLs across the three environments. There were two QTLs which affected the same traits across all three environments. These stable QTLs were identified as being associated with sapwood density and Young’s modulus and explained 3.5–11.3% and 2.1–18.7% of the total genotypic variation, respectively. In contrast, the majority of QTLs detected were unique to only one environment, a finding which is consistent with QTL mapping studies of other forest trees, indicating a substantial contribution of environmental effects on the mapping progenies. Nonetheless, the two stable QTLs identified in this study could be important genomic regions to target for further research aimed at maximizing breeding efficiency and wood quality of C. japonica across wide environmental gradients.
KeywordsSugi QTLs Biomass Wood moisture content
The authors thank Y. Komatsu and M. Kawasaki for technical assistance, and T. Takata, K. Ogata, S. Kobayashi, K. Arai, K. Nemoto, and M. Sugiyama for the maintenance of research materials. We also thank Dr. H. Iwata for his helpful advices regarding the data analyses, Dr. J. Worth for revising the manuscript, and Dr. K. Nanko for his comments on climate data of the study sites. This study was supported by the Research Grant #201421 of the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute.
Data archiving statement
The information about all markers used for this study has been registered in DDBJ. Marker/position information from the linkage map are submitted to TreeGenes Database.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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