Genotype-environment interaction involving site differences in expression of genetic variation along with genotypic rank changes: simulations of economic significance
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Implications of genotype × environment interaction resulting from site differences in expression of genetic variation (LoE interaction) were explored for some plausible scenarios for breeding radiata pine. Expected genetic gains were modelled in a Smith-Hazel selection index. Two sites were modelled, addressing two sets of three traits at each site, to create 6 × 6 genetic and phenotypic covariance matrices based on typical heritabilities and between-trait correlations as well as rank-change (RC) interaction. Two of the traits, which behaved like stem volume production and disease resistance respectively, featured in all scenarios, with disease being expressed and influencing volume at only one site. Two alternatives for the third trait behaved like wood density and stem straightness respectively, two levels of genetic trade-off between volume and density being addressed. The impact of LoE interaction was modelled by assigning either zero or non-zero economic weight to a trait at one site. Comparisons of expected genetic gains indicated how substantial economic gains can depend on appropriate recognition, in selection for deployment, of LoE interaction. Expected economic gains from selection for both sites jointly were generally little less than those from selection for individual sites.
KeywordsGenotype by environment interaction Simulation Selection index Genetic parameters Economic weights Genetic gain prediction Genetic deployment Pinus radiata
We thank Greg Dutkowski for helpful comments on a draft, and Tim Mullin for helpful comments and suggestions for the presentation. RDB had use of Scion office facilities, and YL’s time was covered by Scion’s Forest Genetics core funding allocation.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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