Linkage and association analysis of dihydrochalcones phloridzin, sieboldin, and trilobatin in Malus
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Dihydrochalcones (DHCs) are a distinctive characteristic of Malus species, with phloridzin as the major DHC in most Malus species, including cultivated apple. DHCs in apple have unique chemical properties with commercial and nutritional value and may yield important insights into the evolution and physiology of apple. A few species produce sieboldin and trilobatin instead of phloridzin, and interspecific hybridization produce offspring with combinations of phloridzin, sieboldin, and trilobatin. Using Malus prunifolia PI 89816 as a common male parent, five F1 populations were developed to understand the genetic basis of these DHCs in Malus. We measured DHC content in each population and observed segregation into five distinct DHC profiles, which fit a model for three independently segregating loci. QTL associated with DHC content were identified on linkage groups 7 and 8 of the Malus genome using linkage analysis with a cross of NY-152 by M. prunifolia PI 589816 and association mapping with a Malus germplasm collection. In addition to DHC segregation, we observed variation in the relative proportions of phloridzin, sieboldin, and trilobatin. The QTL identified represent a critical step in understanding the genetic controllers of DHC content in Malus.
KeywordsApple Dihydrochalcone (DHC) Genetic mapping Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) Malus Phloridzin Quantitative trait loci (QTL)
We thank Kevin Maloney for his assistance in developing the F1 populations. Bill Srmack and Kevin Maloney helped maintain seedlings in the greenhouses and field. Julian Koob helped prepare HPLC samples for analysis. Michael Gore, Lailiang Cheng, and Gennaro Fazio offered suggestions to improve the quality of the research and writing. BG was supported through the USDA-ARS Pathways program. JA is a participant of the ORISE-ORAU Education and Training Program.
Funding was provided by the USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Geneva, NY.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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