Linkage and association analysis of dihydrochalcones phloridzin, sieboldin, and trilobatin in Malus
- 59 Downloads
Dihydrochalcones (DHCs) are a distinctive characteristic of Malus species, with phloridzin as the major DHC in most Malus species, including cultivated apple. DHCs in apple have unique chemical properties with commercial and nutritional value and may yield important insights into the evolution and physiology of apple. A few species produce sieboldin and trilobatin instead of phloridzin, and interspecific hybridization produce offspring with combinations of phloridzin, sieboldin, and trilobatin. Using Malus prunifolia PI 89816 as a common male parent, five F1 populations were developed to understand the genetic basis of these DHCs in Malus. We measured DHC content in each population and observed segregation into five distinct DHC profiles, which fit a model for three independently segregating loci. QTL associated with DHC content were identified on linkage groups 7 and 8 of the Malus genome using linkage analysis with a cross of NY-152 by M. prunifolia PI 589816 and association mapping with a Malus germplasm collection. In addition to DHC segregation, we observed variation in the relative proportions of phloridzin, sieboldin, and trilobatin. The QTL identified represent a critical step in understanding the genetic controllers of DHC content in Malus.
KeywordsApple Dihydrochalcone (DHC) Genetic mapping Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) Malus Phloridzin Quantitative trait loci (QTL)
We thank Kevin Maloney for his assistance in developing the F1 populations. Bill Srmack and Kevin Maloney helped maintain seedlings in the greenhouses and field. Julian Koob helped prepare HPLC samples for analysis. Michael Gore, Lailiang Cheng, and Gennaro Fazio offered suggestions to improve the quality of the research and writing. BG was supported through the USDA-ARS Pathways program. JA is a participant of the ORISE-ORAU Education and Training Program.
Funding was provided by the USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Geneva, NY.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bus VGM, Chagné D, Bassett HCM, Bowatte D, Calenge F, Celton J-M, Durel C-E, Malone MT, Patocchi A, Ranatunga AC, Rikkerink EHA, Tustin DS, Zhou J, Gardiner SE (2008) Genome mapping of three major resistance genes to woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.). Tree Genet Genomes 4:223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Devoghalaere F, Doucen T, Guitton B, Keeling J, Payne W, Ling TJ, Ross JJ, Hallett IC, Gunaseelan K, Dayatilake G, Diak R, Breen KC, Tustin DS, Costes E, Chagné D, Schaffer RJ, David KM (2012) A genomics approach to understanding the role of auxin in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit size control. BMC Plant Biol 12:7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dugé de Bernonville T, Guyot S, Paulin J-P, Gaucher M, Loufrani L, Henrion D, Derbré S, Guilet D, Richomme P, Dat JF, Brisset M-N (2010) Dihydrochalcones: implication in resistance to oxidative stress and bioactivities against advanced glycation end-products and vasoconstriction. Phytochemistry 71:443–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gaucher M, Dugé de Bernonville T, Guyot S, Dat JF, Brisset M-N (2013) Same ammo, different weapons: enzymatic extracts from two apple genotypes with contrasted susceptibilities to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) differentially convert phloridzin and phloretin in vitro. Plant Physiol Biochem 72:178–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hutabarat OS, Flachowsky H, Regos I, Miosic S, Kaufmann C, Faramarzi S, Alam MZ, Gosch C, Peil A, Richter K, Hanke M-V, Treutter D, Stich K, Halbwirth H (2016) Transgenic apple plants overexpressing the chalcone 3-hydroxylase gene of Cosmos sulphureus show increased levels of 3-hydroxyphloridzin and reduced susceptibility to apple scab and fire blight. Planta 243:1213–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Khan SA, Chibon P-Y, de Vos RCH, Schipper BA, Walraven E, Beekwilder J, van Dijk T, Finkers R, Visser RGF, van de Weg E, Bovy A, Cestaro A, Velasco R, Jacobsen E, Schouten HJ (2012) Genetic analysis of metabolites in apple fruits indicates an mQTL hotspot for phenolic compounds on linkage group 16. J Exp Bot 63:2895–2908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kumar S, Garrick DJ, Bink MC, Whitworth C, Chagne D, Volz RK (2013) Novel genomic approaches unravel genetic architecture of complex traits in apple. BMC Genomics 14:393–2164–14–393Google Scholar
- Mikulič Petkovšek M, Stampar F, Veberic R (2008) Increased phenolic content in apple leaves infected with the apple scab pathogen. J Plant Pathol 90:49–55Google Scholar
- Money D, Gardner K, Migicovsky Z, Schwaninger H, Zhong G-Y, Myles S (2015) LinkImpute: fast and accurate genotype imputation for non-model organisms. G3 Genes Genomes Genet 5:2383–2390Google Scholar
- Peters G-J (2018) userfriendlyscience: Quantitative analysis made accessible. R Package Version 072 Httpuserfriendlysciencecom. https://doi.org/10.17605/osf.io/txequ
- R Core Team (2016) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL https://www.R-project.org/
- Rivière C (2016) Dihydrochalcones: occurrence in the plant kingdom, chemistry and biological activities. In: Atta-ur-Rahman (ed) Studies in natural products chemistry, 1st edn. Elsevier, pp 253–381Google Scholar
- Williams A, Jarrett J (1975) Hybridization of Malus. In: Report - Long Ashton Research Station 1974. University of Bristol, Bristol, p 44Google Scholar