Evidence of Large-Scale Social Interactions in Mammography in the United States
- 21 Downloads
This paper examines the extent of social interactions in an individual’s decision to undergo mammography. Using Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System surveys from 1993 to 2016, the effect of other female screening behavior on an individual’s decision to have a routine breast cancer screening was measured by calculating the size of a so called “social multiplier” in mammography. A vector of social multipliers was estimated in the use of mammograms in the past 1–2 years by taking the ratio of group-level effects of exogenous explanatory variables to individual-level effects of the same variables. Peer groups were defined as same-aged women living in the same state. Three age groups of women were considered: 40–49, 50–74, and 75 and older. Several econometric approaches were used to analyze the effect of social interactions on mammography use, including ordinary least squares, fixed effects, and split-sample instrumental variable. For all women, evidence was found of social interactions associated with individual’s education, employment, and poor health. In addition, number of age-group-specific social multipliers was found. The strongest evidence of spillover in mammography was found for women ages 75 and older. Policy makers should be aware that, in the presence of a social multiplier, the value of any type of screening intervention is higher than the one that would be measured at the individual-level.
KeywordsMammography Peer effects Screening Preventive behavior Breast cancer Social multiplier
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Publication of this article did not receive any financial or material support from any organization with a financial or policy interests in the subject matter discussed in the manuscript. The authors are not affiliated or financially involved with any such organization. There is no financial, personal or other conflict of interest to be reported.
This article has not been published previously and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. The publication of this articles is approved by all authors.
- American Cancer Society (2014). Lifetime Risk of Developing or Dying From Cancer. https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-basics/lifetime-probability-of-developing-or-dying-from-cancer.html. Accessed 11 Nov 2018.
- American Cancer Society (2018). Breast Cancer Facts and Figures 2017–2018. https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures-2017-2018.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2018.
- Angrist, J. D., & Krueger, A. B. (1995). Split-sample instrumental variables estimates of the return to schooling. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 13(2), 225–235.Google Scholar
- Arnold, M., Pandeya, N., Byrnes, G., Renehan, A. G., Stevens, G. A., Ezzati, M., Ferlay, J., Miranda, J. J., Romieu, I., Dikshit, R., Forman, D., & Soerjomataram, I. (2015). Global burden of cancer attributable to high body-mass index in 2012: a population-based study. The Lancet Oncology, 16(1), 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1993-2016). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data.https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/annual_data/annual_data.htm. Accessed 12 Dec 2018.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). The BRFSS Data User Guide, 2013. https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/data_documentation/pdf/UserguideJune2013.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2018.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). Health, United States, 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus16.pdf#070. Accessed 11 Nov 2018.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018). Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines for Women. https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/breast/pdf/BreastCancerScreeningGuidelines.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2018.
- Dearden, K., Pritchett, L., & Brown, J. (2004). Learning from neighbors: Social learning about child feeding during diarrheal episodes. In Annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Boston, MA.(Abstract#454.2). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4e06/8d09b5c5f5882be8c8f90c015a590029e3ba.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2018.
- Deardorff, J. (2010). Foot rub, mammogram? Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/lifestyles/health/sc-health-faces-1010-breast-mammogram20100922-story.html. Accessed 11 Nov 2018.
- Glaeser, E., & Scheinkman, J. (2001). Measuring social interactions. In S. N. Durlaf & H. P. Young (Eds.), Social dynamics (pp. 83–132). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Grossman, M. (2000). The human capital model. In A. J. Culyer & J. P. Newhouse (Eds.), Handbook of health economics (Vol. 1, pp. 347–408). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Hout, M. (2004). Getting the most out of the GSS income measures. Chicago: National Opinion Research Center. http://gss.norc.org/Documents/reports/methodological-reports/MR101%20Getting%20the%20Most%20Out%20of%20the%20GSS%20Income%20Measures.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2018.
- Indy (2011). Mission Hospital Makes ‘Pinky Pledge” to Encourage Screening Mammograms. https://www.lagunabeachindy.com/mission-hospital-makes-%E2%80%98pinky-pledge%E2%80%9D-to-encourage-screening-mammograms. Accessed 14 Nov 2018.
- Miguel, E., & Kremer, M. (2003). Networks, social learning, and technology adoption: The case of deworming drugs in Kenya. Berkeley, CA. Center for Labor Economics, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
- Mokdad, A. H., Ford, E. S., Bowman, B. A., Dietz, W. H., Vinicor, F., Bales, V. S., et al. (2003). Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(1), 76–79.Google Scholar
- Orange County Register (2011) “Pinky Pledge” effort seeks to get women screened for cancer. https://www.ocregister.com/2011/05/12/pinky-pledge-effort-seeks-to-get-women-screened-for-cancer. Accessed 14 Nov 2018.
- Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 42 U.S.C. § 2713 (2010). https://www.congress.gov/111/plaws/publ148/PLAW-111publ148.pdf. Accessed 12 Nov 2018.
- Rogers, E. M., & Kincaid, D. L. (1981). Communication networks: Toward a new paradigm for research. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Wake Radiology (2016). Wake Radiology Asks Local Women to Make a Pinky Promise Pledge. https://www.wakerad.com/feature-stories/wake-radiology-asks-local-women-make-pinky-promise-pledge. Accessed 14 Nov 2018.