Environmental temperature and air humidity and prevalence of maxillary sinus retention cysts: possible relationships (preliminary study)

  • Humeyra Tercanli AlkisEmail author
  • Elif Kurtuldu
  • Nebiha Hilal Bilge
  • Selmi Yilmaz
  • Osman Murat Bilge
Original Article



The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of maxillary sinus retention cysts (MSRCs) and to evaluate the effects of mean temperature and mean air humidity on the prevalence of MSRCs in two cities in Turkey.


This retrospective study was conducted in Antalya and Erzurum, two cities with different air humidities and temperatures in Turkey. Panoramic images of patients who visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Akdeniz University and Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ataturk University for diagnostic purposes were evaluated. A total of 4800 panoramic images were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 27.03 ± 6.48 years. The prevalence of MSRCs was analyzed according to sex, mean temperature, and mean air humidity. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.


Among the 4800 panoramic images evaluated, 228 indicated the presence of MSRCs. MSRCs were found significantly more frequently in males than in females. The prevalence was 3% in Antalya and 6.5% in Erzurum, with a total prevalence of 4.8%. While there was a significant correlation between the total amount of cysts and monthly mean air humidity in Erzurum, the correlation effect size was very low.


The total prevalence of MSRCs was 4.8%. There were no correlations between the frequency of MSRCs and the mean air humidity or mean temperature.


Maxillary sinus Panoramic radiography Retention cyst 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Ebru Kaya Basar for statistical analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Humeyra Tercanli Alkis, Elif Kurtuldu, Nebiha Hilal Bilge, Selmi Yilmaz, and Osman Murat Bilge declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human rights statement

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later versions.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

Animal rights statement

This article does not contain any studies with animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    Rodrigues CD, Freire GF, Silva LB, Fonseca da Silveira MM, Estrela C. Prevalence and risk factors of mucous retention cysts in a Brazilian population. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2009;38:480–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Donizeth-Rodrigues C, Fonseca-Da Silveira M, Goncalves-De Alencar AH, Garcia-Santos-Silva MA, Francisco-De-Mendonca E, Estrela C. Three-dimensional images contribute to the diagnosis of mucous retention cyst in maxillary sinus. Med Oral Patol Oral Circ Bucal. 2013;18:151–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vallo J, Suominen-Taipale L, Huumonen S, Soikkonen K, Norblad A. Prevalence of mucosal abnormalities of the maxillary sinus and their relationship to dental disease in panoramic radiography: results from the Health 2000 Health Examination Survey. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:80–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marcal Vieira EM, de Morais S, de Musis CR, Borges AH, Palma VC, da Silva Basilio L, et al. Frequency of maxillary sinus mucous retention cysts in a central Brazilian population. J Dent Shiraz. 2015;16:169–74.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yeung AWK, Tanaka R, Khong PL, von Arx T, Bornstein MM. Frequency, location, and association with dental pathology of mucous retention cysts in the maxillary sinus. A radiographic study using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Clin Oral Investig. 2018;22:1175–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kose TE, Demirtas N, Cakir Karabas H, Ozcan I. Evaluation of dental panoramic radiographic findings in edentulous jaws: a retrospective study of 743 patients “Radiographic features in edentulous jaws”. J Adv Prosthodont. 2015;7:380–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bal M, Berkiten G, Uyanik E. Mucous retention cysts of the paranasal sinuses. Hippokratia. 2014;18:379.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Caglayan F, Tozoglu U. Incidental findings in the maxillofacial region detected by cone beam CT. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2012;18:159–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Casamassimo PS, Lilly GE. Mucosal cysts of the maxillary sinus: a clinical and radiographic study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1980;50:282–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Uysal T, Sisman Y, Kurt G, Ramoglu SI. Condylar and ramal vertical asymmetry in unilateral and bilateral posterior crossbite patients and a normal occlusion sample. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;136:37–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kurt G, Uysal T, Sisman Y, Ramoglu SI. Mandibular asymmetry in class II subdivision malocclusion. Angle Orthod. 2008;78:32–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martinez-Gonzalez JM, Barona-Dorado C, Arias-Irimia O, Martinez-Rodriguez N, Fernandez-Dominguez M. Panoramic and tomographic implant studies: role in the diagnosis of sinus disorders. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2010;15:611–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maestre-Ferrin L, Galan-Gil S, Carrillo-Garcia C, Penarrocha-Diago M. Radiographic findings in the maxillary sinus: comparison of panoramic radiography with computed tomography. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011;26:341–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bosio JA, Tanaka O, Rovigatti E, de Gruner SK. The incidence of maxillary sinus retention cysts in orthodontic patients. World J Orthod. 2009;10:7–8.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rege IC, Sousa TO, Leles CR, Mendonca EF. Occurrence of maxillary sinus abnormalities detected by cone beam CT in asymptomatic patients. BMC Oral Health. 2012;12:30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Myall RWT, Eastep PB, Silver JG. Mucous retention cysts of the maxillary antrum. J Am Dent Assoc. 1974;89:1338–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gothberg KA, Little JW, King DR, Bean LR. A clinical study of cysts arising from mucosa of the maxillary sinus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1976;41:52–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Halstead CL. Mucosal cysts of the maxillary sinus: report of 75 cases. J Am Dent Assoc. 1973;87:1435–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hauman CH, Chandler NP, Tong DC. Endodontic implications of the maxillary sinus: a review. Int Endod J. 2002;35:127–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moskow BS. A histomorphologic study of the effects of periodontal inflammation on the maxillary sinus mucosa. J Periodontol. 1992;63:674–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mehra P, Murad H. Maxillary sinus disease of odontogenic origin. Otolaryngol Clin N Am. 2004;37:347–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kretzschmar DP, Kretzschmar JL. Rhinosinusitis: review from a dental perspective. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003;96:128–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Scheinfeld MH, Shifteh K, Avery LL, Dym H, Dym RJ. Teeth: what radiologists should know. Radiographics. 2012;32:1927–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cohen J. A power primer. Psychol Bull. 1992;112:155–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society for Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of DentistryAkdeniz UniversityAntalyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of DentistryAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey

Personalised recommendations